Vascularisation is key to developing large transplantable tissue constructs capable of providing therapeutic benefits. The vascularised tissue engineering chamber originates from surgical concepts in tissue prefabrication and microsurgery. It serves as an in vivo bioreactor in the form of a closed, protected space surgically created and embedded within the body by fitting a noncollapsible chamber around major blood vessels. This creates a highly angiogenic environment which facilitates the engraftment and survival of transplanted cells and tissue constructs. This article outlines the chamber concept and explores its application in the context of recent advances in biomedical engineering, and how this can play a role in the future of cell therapies and regenerative medicine.