Objective To evaluate the effect of consuming a variety of foods enriched in long-chain n-3 fatty acids in low fish eaters.Design Evaluation of reported dietary intakes in a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, controlled parallel design trial.Subjects/setting Eighty-five men and women with overweight and mildly elevated triglyceride levels who have a low habitual intake of fish.Intervention Subjects were randomized to consume foods either enriched in long-chain n-3 fats or control foods (not enriched). Subjects were asked to consume eight portions per day (equivalent to approximately 1 g/day long-chain n-3 fatty acid if randomized to the intervention).Main outcome measure Reported energy, macronutrient, and fatty acid intakes were measured by diet history, 3-day food records, and body weight.Statistical analyses Repeated measures analysis of variance, Kruskall-Wallis test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plots were conducted.Results The two groups did not differ in mean dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake at baseline (258 mg and 313 mg for the intervention and control groups, respectively). At 6 months the intervention group members increased their intake of long-chain n-3 fats 4.5-fold compared with baseline and with the control group (P <.001). The data from the diet histories correlated well with the food records for all reported macronutrient and fatty acid values. Food pattern analysis showed that milk (13.8%), cereal (12.1%), and bread (11.3%) contributed the most to the overall long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake in the intervention group.Conclusions This long-term study in free-living subjects indicates that population intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids could be substantially increased through the availability of a variety of n-3 fatty acid-enriched processed foods.
Patch, C. S., Tapsell, L. C., Mori, T., Meyer, B. J., Murphy, K. J., Mansour, J., Noakes, M., Clifton, P. M., Puddey, I., Beilin, L., Annison, G., & Howe, P. R. C. (2005). The Use of Novel Foods Enriched with Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids to Increase Dietary Intake : A Comparison of Methodologies Assessing Nutrient Intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105(12), 1918-1926. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2005.09.001