The unending burden of high out-of-pocket expenditure on institutional deliveries in India

S Goli, . Moradhvaj, J Pradhan, T Reja

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1 Citation (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: This study aims to address the question that whether out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) on institutional deliveries remained high or reduced over time in India, in particular after the introduction of conditional cash transfer (CCT) incentive programmes such as Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) in 2005.

STUDY DESIGN: The study presents the trends in average OOPE on institutional deliveries in India, in an effort to evaluate the impact of the JSY programme on it.

METHODS: For the purpose, the study used recently released 75th round of National Sample Survey data, 2017/18 about household social consumption (Health) and two of its previous rounds in 2004 and 2014.

RESULTS: The results suggest that, except at rural public facilities, the average OOPE for institutional delivery has increased significantly in both rural and urban areas from 2004 to 2017/18, even after adjusting to inflation in the prices. In addition, the results have shown that overall 14 of 33 states for rural public facilities, 20 of 25 states in rural private facilities, 21 of 32 states in urban public facilities and 29 of 32 states in urban private facilities have experienced more than 50% raise in OOPE on institutional delivery during 2004-2017/18, despite JSY incentives.

CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the current level of JSY incentives will not be sufficient to avoid catastrophic spending on institutional deliveries for the households as the incentives in several states are much less than the state average OOPE per delivery. Thus, there is a need to consider a raise in the state or central contribution for CCT under the JSY programme to reduce the burden of OOPE on institutional deliveries through recently launched Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-47
Number of pages5
JournalPublic Health
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


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