The tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems: Climate-mediated changes in herbivory and community phase shifts

A. Vergés, P.D. Steinberg, M. Hay, A.G.B. Poore, A.H. Campbell, E. Ballesteros, K.L. Heck, D.J. Booth, M.A. Coleman, D.A. Feary, W.F. Figueira, Timothy Langlois, E.M. Marzinelli, T. Mizerek, P.J. Mumby, Y. Nakamura, M. Roughan, E. Van Sebille, A.S. Gupta, Daniel SmaleF. Tomàs, Thomas Wernberg, Shaun Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

490 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Climate-driven changes in biotic interactions can profoundly alter ecological communities, particularly when they impact foundation species. In marine systems, changes in herbivory and the consequent loss of dominant habitat forming species can result in dramatic community phase shifts, such as from coral to macroalgal dominance when tropical fish herbivory decreases, and from algal forests to 'barrens' when temperate urchin grazing increases. Here, we propose a novel phase-shift away from macroalgal dominance caused by tropical herbivores extending their range into temperate regions. We argue that this phase shift is facilitated by poleward-flowing boundary currents that are creating ocean warming hotspots around the globe, enabling the range expansion of tropical species and increasing their grazing rates in temperate areas. Overgrazing of temperate macroalgae by tropical herbivorous fishes has already occurred in Japan and the Mediterranean. Emerging evidence suggests similar phenomena are occurring in other temperate regions, with increasing occurrence of tropical fishes on temperate reefs. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volume281
Issue number1789
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2014

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