The scope, functions, and dynamics of posttranslational protein modifications

A Harvey Millar, Joshua L Heazlewood, Carmela Giglione, Michael J Holdsworth, Andreas Bachmair, Waltraud X Schulze

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

156 Citations (Scopus)


Assessing posttranslational modification (PTM) patterns within protein molecules and reading their functional implications present grand challenges for plant biology. We combine four perspectives on PTMs and their roles by considering five classes of PTMs as examples of the broader context of PTMs. These include modifications of the N terminus, glycosylation, phosphorylation, oxidation, and N-terminal and protein modifiers linked to protein degradation. We consider the spatial distribution of PTMs, the subcellular distribution of modifying enzymes, and their targets throughout the cell, and we outline the complexity of compartmentation in understanding of PTM function. We also consider PTMs temporally in the context of the lifetime of a protein molecule and the need for different PTMs for assembly, localization, function, and degradation. Finally, we consider the combined action of PTMs on the same proteins, their interactions, and the challenge ahead of integrating PTMs into an understanding of protein function in plants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-151
Number of pages33
JournalAnnual Review of Plant Biology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019


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