Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is often accompanied by diabetes leading to worsening lung function, the reason for which is unclear. The receptor for advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE) regulates immune responses and inflammation and has been linked to diabetes and possibly CF. We performed a pilot study to determine if CF and CF-related diabetes (CFRD) are associated with enhanced RAGE expression. Full length (fl)RAGE, soluble (s)RAGE, endogenous soluble (es)RAGE, S100A12 (enRAGE) and advanced-glycation-end-products (AGE) expression was assessed in serum, white blood cells and sputum of patients with CF; diabetes; CFRD and healthy subjects. Sputum enRAGE/sRAGE ratios were high in CF but particularly in CFRD which negatively correlated with % predicted FEV1. Serum AGE and AGE/sRAGE ratios were high in diabetics but not in CF. A complex, multifaceted approach was used to assess the role of RAGE and its ligands which is fundamental to determining their impact on airway inflammation. There is a clear association between RAGE activity in the airways of CF and CFRD patients that is not evident in the vascular compartment and correlates with lung function, in contrast to diabetes. This strongly suggests a role for RAGE in contributing to the inflammatory overdrive seen in CF and to a greater extent in CFRD.