Roots are the main plant organs that supply nutrients, water, hormones and physical support for the plant. Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting and important elements in root growth and crop production. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different sources of phosphorus treatments on root growth (root length, diameter and dry matter) of barley. The two glasshouse pot experiments results showed that under P deficiency, the weight of dry root significantly decreased and the total root length of whole plant significantly increased with decrease of root diameter. Our results suggested that soil fertility and root structure are widely recognized as important role of the soil community and plant growth, the root structure and root extension can directly and indirectly affected by soil fertility and specially P nutrient of the soil. Accordingly, root characteristics can determine the circumstance of plant growth and crop production.