This study investigated implicit and explicit components of exerciser self-schema and their role in the prediction of exercise behaviour. In addition, the effect of implicit and explicit exerciser self-schema on intention to exercise was examined. Moderation and mediation effects involving exerciser self-schema, in both its implicit and explicit forms, were investigated.MethodMembers of fitness centres and other regular exercisers (N = 98, nmales = 37, nfemales = 65) completed a written questionnaire to measure explicit exerciser self-schema and exercise intentions. An exercise Implicit Association Test (IAT) was also administered to measure implicit exerciser self-schema. Actual exercise occurrence was measured one week and two weeks following the initial testing phase.ResultsCorrelations indicated that implicit and explicit components of exerciser self-schema were related but distinct constructs. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that high levels of both implicit and explicit exerciser self-schema improved absolute levels of exercise behaviour. Regression analyses examining the possibility that self-schema moderated the intention–behaviour relationship were not significant for implicit or explicit forms of self-schema. Forced entry regression analyses provided evidence for explicit exerciser self-schema being mediated by intention in its relationship with behaviour.ConclusionsIt is beneficial to consider both implicit and explicit exerciser self-schema when attempting to understand and predict exercise behaviour. Both implicit and explicit exercise self-schema have a direct effect on behaviour, although explicit self-schema also indirectly influences behaviour via intention to exercise.