The role of anthocyanin and kaolinite in modifying cabbage leaves biochar for removal of potentially toxic elements and pharmaceutical from aqueous solution

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Abstract

We investigated the feasibility of two novel engineered biochar composites by pyrolyzing cabbage leaves at 350 °C after pre-treating them with anthocyanin, followed by a post-treatment with kaolinite for the removal of two potentially toxic elements (copper and lead) and a pharmaceutical compound, metoprolol. Results showed that the Kaolinite-biochar composite (KB) exhibited the highest adsorption capacity, 188.67 and 48.07 mg/g for Pb and Cu at pH 5, and the anthocyanin-biochar composite (AB) exhibited the highest adsorption capacity: 41.15 mg/g for metoprolol at pH 6, compared to raw biochar respectively. The enhancement of the adsorption of heavy metal and metoprolol by KB and AB was due to an increase in certain oxygen functional groups, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. The pseudo-second order kinetic model, along with Langmuir isotherm model, best described the kinetic and the isotherms for Pb, Cu and metoprolol in KB and AB composites, respectively. FTIR, XPS, and zeta potential measurements indicated that the sorption mechanisms involved electrostatic interaction, ion exchange, and complexation for the metals, while electrostatic interaction, H-bonding, π-πinteraction, and hydrophobic bonding were postulated as the contributing mechanisms in the sorption process of metoprolol. Anthocyanin and kaolinite could potentially be considered as alternative sustainable materials for modifying raw biochar and remediating toxic elements and pharmaceuticals in aqueous media.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121435
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume325
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2023
Externally publishedYes

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