In Australia, there are no current national estimates of the risks of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human T-lymphotrophic virus (HTLV) by musculoskeletal tissue transplantation. We determined the prevalence rates of antibodies against HIV (anti-HIV), HCV (anti-HCV) and HTLV (anti-HTLV) and Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for 12415 musculoskeletal tissue donors from three major bone tissue banks across Australia for the period 1993-2004. The prevalence (per 100 000 persons) was 64.44 for anti-HIV, 407.13 for HBsAg, 534.63 for anti-HCV and 121.88 for anti-HTLV. The estimated probability of viremia at the time of donation was 1 in 128 000, 1 in 189 000, 1 in 55 000 and 1 in 118 000, respectively. With the addition of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT), the probability of donor viremia would be reduced to 1 in 315 000 for HIV, 1 in 385 000 for HBV and 1 in 500 000 for HCV. The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and HTLV although low, are higher among musculoskeletal tissue donors than among first-time blood donors. The risks associated with musculoskeletal donation will be reduced with NAT, though further cost analysis is required prior to its implementation.
Yao, F. C., Seed, C., Farrugia, A., Morgan, D., Cordner, S., Wood, D., & Zheng, M. (2007). The Risk of HIV, HBV, HCV and HTLV infection among musculoskeletal tissue donors in Australia. American Journal of Transplantation, 7(12), 2723-2726. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.02012.x