© 2016 International Society of NephrologyIntroduction The impact of time to treatment on clinical outcome is an established precept in infectious disease but is not established in peritoneal dialysis–related peritonitis (PDRP). Methods In a prospective multicenter study of PDRP, symptom-to-contact time (SC), contact-to-treatment time (CT), defined as the time from health care presentation to initial antibiotic, and symptom-to-treatment time (ST) were determined. Results One hundred sixteen patients had 159 episodes of PDRP. Median SC for all episodes was 5.0 hours (first to third quartile [Q1–Q3]: 1.3–13.9); CT, 2.3 hours (Q1–Q3: 1.2–4.0); and ST, 9.0 hours (Q1–Q3: 4.7–25.3). Thirty-eight (23.9%) patient episodes (28 catheter removals and 10 deaths) met the primary composite outcome of PD failure at 30 days (PD-fail). The risk of PD-fail increased by 5.5% for each hour of delay of administration of antibiotics (odds ratio [OR] for CT: 1.055; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.005–1.109; P = 0.032). Neither SC (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99–1.01; P = 0.74) nor ST (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99–1.01; P = 0.48) was associated with PD-fail. In a multivariable analysis, only CT for presentation to a hospital-based facility compared with a community facility (OR: 1.068; 95% CI: 1.013–1.126; P = 0.015) and female sex (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1–5.4; P = 0.027) were independently associated with PD-fail. Each hour of delay in administering antibacterial therapy from the time of presentation to a hospital facility increased the risk of PD failure or death by 6.8%. Discussion Strategies targeted to expedited antibiotic treatment should be implemented to improve outcomes from PDRP.