While iron is an essential trace element required by nearly all living organisms, deficiencies or excesses can lead to pathological conditions such as iron deficiency anemia or hemochromatosis, respectively. A decade has passed since the discovery of the hemochromatosis gene, HFE, and our understanding of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and iron metabolism in health and a variety of diseases has progressed considerably. Although HFE-related hemochromatosis is the most widespread, other forms of HH have subsequently been identified. These forms are not attributed to mutations in the HFE gene but rather to mutations in genes involved in the transport, storage, and regulation of iron. This review is an overview of cellular iron metabolism and regulation, describing the function of key proteins involved in these processes, with particular emphasis on the liver's role in iron homeostasis, as it is the main target of iron deposition in pathological iron overload. Current knowledge on their roles in maintaining iron homeostasis and how their dysregulation leads to the pathogenesis of HH are discussed.