Protease-activated receptor, (PAR(2)) is a subtype of G protein-coupled receptor that is widely expressed within the respiratory tract. Stimulation of PAR(2) by proteases such as trypsin and tryptase, or by small peptidic activators induces a complex array of effects within the airways. One such PAR-mediated effect by basal airway epithelial cells is the generation of prostaglandin E-2. Prostaglandin E-2 produces a raft of anti-inflammatory effects within the airways, principally through the activation of the prostanoid EP2 and EP3 receptor subtypes. This article reviews the PAR,prostaglandin E-2-prostanoid EP receptor axis and discusses approaches through which its activation may provide beneficial effects in respiratory disease. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.