Injury to the serosa through injurious agents such as radiation, surgery, infection and disease results in the loss of the protective surface mesothelium and often leads to fibrous adhesion formation. Mechanisms that increase the rate of mesothialisation are therefore actively being investigated in order to reduce the formation of adhesions. These include intraperitoneal delivery of cultured mesothelial cells as well as administration of factors that are known to increase mesothelial proliferation and migration. An exciting alternative that has only recently received attention, is the possible role of mesothelial progenitor cells in the repair and regeneration of denuded serosal areas. Accumulating evidence suggests that such a population exists and under certain conditions is able to form a number of defined cell types indicating a degree of plasticity. Such properties may explain the extensive use of mesothelial cells in various tissue engineering applications including the development of vascular conduits and peripheral nerve replacements. It is likely that with the rapid explosion in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, a greater understanding of the potential of mesothelial progenitor cells to repair, replace and possibly regenerate damaged or defective tissue will be uncovered.