A new pseudoscorpion classification is proposed with two new suborders, Epiocheirata and Iocheirata, based upon a cladistic analysis of relationships within the order. The Epiocheirata contains two superfamilies: Chthonioidea for Chthoniidae, Tridenchthoniidae and Lechytiidae, stat. nov. (for Lechytia), and Feaelloidea for Feaellidae and Pseudogarypidae. The Iocheirata is divided into two infraorders: Hemictenata Balzan and Panctenata Balzan. The Hemictenata contains a single superfamily, Neobisioidea for Bochicidae, Gymnobisiidae, Hyidae, Ideoroncidae, Neobisiidae, Parahyidae, fam. nov. (for Parahya) and Syarinidae. The Panctenata contains two microorders: Mestommatina, nov, with Garypoidea for Cheiridiidae, Garypidae, Geogarypidae, Larcidae, fam. nov. (for Archeolarca and Larca) and Pseudochiridiidae, and Olpioidea for Menthidae and Olpiidae; and Elassommatina, nov. with Sternophoroidea, stat. nov, for Sternophoridae, and Cheliferoidea for Atemnidae, Cheliferidae, Chernetidae and Withiidae. The Vachoniidae is synonymised with the Bochicidae, and the Cheiridioidea is treated as a synonym of Garypoidea. Philomaoria Chamberlin and Philomaoriini are transferred from the Withiidae to the Cheliferidae. The chthoniid tribe Pseudotyrannochthoniini is elevated to subfamily rank, and the systematic position of the Devonian family Dracochelidae is discussed.