Bichat first described the mesothelium in 1827 but despite its early discovery, it has only been in recent years that its importance both in health and disease has been realised. One area still poorly understood is that of the mechanisms regulating mesothelial repair. Mesothelial cells are derived from the mesoderm but express many epithelial characteristics. However, mesothelium does not heal in the same way as other epithelial-like cells. Epithelium heals by centripetal migration, with cells at the edge of the wound proliferating and migrating into the injured area. Hertzler in 1919 noted that both large and small peritoneal injuries healed within the same time frame, concluding that the mesothelium could not heal solely by centripetal migration. The exact mechanisms involved in mesothelial regeneration following injury are controversial with a number of proposals suggested to explain the origin of the regenerating cells. This review will examine these proposals and give some insights into the likely mechanisms involved.