### Abstract

Our nearest large cosmological neighbour, the Andromeda galaxy (M31), is a dynamical system, and an accurate measurement of its total mass is central to our understanding of its assembly history, the life-cycles of its satellite galaxies, and its role in shaping the Local Group environment. Here, we apply a novel approach to determine the dynamical mass of M31 using high-velocity Planetary Nebulae, establishing a hierarchical Bayesian model united with a scheme to capture potential outliers and marginalize over tracers unknown distances. With this, we derive the escape velocity run of M31 as a function of galactocentric distance, with both parametric and non-parametric approaches. We determine the escape velocity of M31 to be 470 ± 40 km s^{-1} at a galactocentric distance of 15 kpc, and also, derive the total potential of M31, estimating the virial mass and radius of the galaxy to be 0.8 ± 0.1 × 10^{12}M_{⊙} and 240 ± 10 kpc, respectively. Our M31 mass is on the low side of the measured range, this supports the lower expected mass of the M31-MilkyWay system from the timing and momentum arguments, satisfying the HI constraint on circular velocity between 10 ≲ R/kpc < 35, and agreeing with the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation. To place these results in a broader context, we compare them to the key predictions of the ΛCDM cosmological paradigm, including the stellar-mass-halo-mass and the dark matter halo concentration-virial mass correlation, and finding it to be an outlier to this relation.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 4043-4054 |

Number of pages | 12 |

Journal | Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society |

Volume | 475 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1 Apr 2018 |

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*Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*,

*475*(3), 4043-4054. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty082

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*Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*, vol. 475, no. 3, pp. 4043-4054. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty082

**The need for speed : Escape velocity and dynamical mass measurements of the Andromeda galaxy.** / Kafle, Prajwal R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Lewis, Geraint F.; Robotham, Aaron S.G.; Driver, Simon P.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - The need for speed

T2 - Escape velocity and dynamical mass measurements of the Andromeda galaxy

AU - Kafle, Prajwal R.

AU - Sharma, Sanjib

AU - Lewis, Geraint F.

AU - Robotham, Aaron S.G.

AU - Driver, Simon P.

PY - 2018/4/1

Y1 - 2018/4/1

N2 - Our nearest large cosmological neighbour, the Andromeda galaxy (M31), is a dynamical system, and an accurate measurement of its total mass is central to our understanding of its assembly history, the life-cycles of its satellite galaxies, and its role in shaping the Local Group environment. Here, we apply a novel approach to determine the dynamical mass of M31 using high-velocity Planetary Nebulae, establishing a hierarchical Bayesian model united with a scheme to capture potential outliers and marginalize over tracers unknown distances. With this, we derive the escape velocity run of M31 as a function of galactocentric distance, with both parametric and non-parametric approaches. We determine the escape velocity of M31 to be 470 ± 40 km s-1 at a galactocentric distance of 15 kpc, and also, derive the total potential of M31, estimating the virial mass and radius of the galaxy to be 0.8 ± 0.1 × 1012M⊙ and 240 ± 10 kpc, respectively. Our M31 mass is on the low side of the measured range, this supports the lower expected mass of the M31-MilkyWay system from the timing and momentum arguments, satisfying the HI constraint on circular velocity between 10 ≲ R/kpc < 35, and agreeing with the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation. To place these results in a broader context, we compare them to the key predictions of the ΛCDM cosmological paradigm, including the stellar-mass-halo-mass and the dark matter halo concentration-virial mass correlation, and finding it to be an outlier to this relation.

AB - Our nearest large cosmological neighbour, the Andromeda galaxy (M31), is a dynamical system, and an accurate measurement of its total mass is central to our understanding of its assembly history, the life-cycles of its satellite galaxies, and its role in shaping the Local Group environment. Here, we apply a novel approach to determine the dynamical mass of M31 using high-velocity Planetary Nebulae, establishing a hierarchical Bayesian model united with a scheme to capture potential outliers and marginalize over tracers unknown distances. With this, we derive the escape velocity run of M31 as a function of galactocentric distance, with both parametric and non-parametric approaches. We determine the escape velocity of M31 to be 470 ± 40 km s-1 at a galactocentric distance of 15 kpc, and also, derive the total potential of M31, estimating the virial mass and radius of the galaxy to be 0.8 ± 0.1 × 1012M⊙ and 240 ± 10 kpc, respectively. Our M31 mass is on the low side of the measured range, this supports the lower expected mass of the M31-MilkyWay system from the timing and momentum arguments, satisfying the HI constraint on circular velocity between 10 ≲ R/kpc < 35, and agreeing with the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation. To place these results in a broader context, we compare them to the key predictions of the ΛCDM cosmological paradigm, including the stellar-mass-halo-mass and the dark matter halo concentration-virial mass correlation, and finding it to be an outlier to this relation.

KW - Galaxies: individual: M31

KW - Galaxies: kinematics and dynamics

KW - Methods: statistical

KW - Stars: individual: Planetary Nebulae

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85044719468&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/mnras/sty082

DO - 10.1093/mnras/sty082

M3 - Article

VL - 475

SP - 4043

EP - 4054

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

IS - 3

ER -