In this review, the primary objective is to assess the evidence of whether breastfeeding protects against asthma and atopic disease for the long-term (long-term is defined here as >5 years of age). Two main types of observational epidemiological studies have been used to test this hypothesis. These are cohort studies of random samples of children and cohort studies of children with a family history of asthma or atopy. In each study type, exposure and outcome data are collected either prospectively or retrospectively. The 12 criteria for assessing the adequate measurement of exposure, outcome and statistics of cohort studies in this context are given in Table 17-1.