The location of protein oxidation in dystrophic skeletal muscle from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Tomohito Iwasaki, Jessica R. Terrill, Kei Kawarai, Yusei Miyata, Takayoshi Tagami, Naoyuki Maeda, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Takafumi Watanabe, Miranda D. Grounds, Peter G. Arthur

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe childhood disease characterised by progressive muscle wasting caused by widespread myofibre necrosis. Implicated in the pathology of DMD is oxidative stress, caused by excessive generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). One consequence of RONS exposure is post-translational oxidative modifications to proteins, which can cause loss of protein function. This study used the dystrophic mdx mouse model for DMD to visualise the precise location of different oxidative modifications to proteins in dystrophic muscles, including both reversible (protein thiol oxidation and s-nitrosylation) and irreversible (carbonylation and dityrosine formation) oxidation at various stages of dystrophic muscle necrosis and regeneration. High levels of protein oxidation were observed in mdx myofibres undergoing degeneration and immune cell infiltration (myonecrosis). Since irreversible protein oxidation, especially dityrosine formation, was only colocalised to areas of myonecrosis, we suggest that this specific measurement could be a useful biomarker of myonecrosis. To test this we quantified dityrosines in muscle homogenates; this analysis showed significantly higher levels of dityrosines in mdx (compared with control normal) mice aged 23 days, an age when acute onset of extensive myonecrosis occurs in mdx muscles. These results indicate a major localised role of immune cells in RONS generation in dystrophic muscle, and strongly support a role for protein oxidation in myonecrosis and associated dystropathology. Consequently, the measurement of protein oxidation (specifically dityrosines) in dystrophic muscles may be a useful biomarker for indirectly quantifying myonecrosis in research studies using mdx mice and other animal models for DMD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number151959
JournalActa Histochemica
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


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