A body of thought concerning economic ethics circulated widely in late medieval England. Interrelated concepts included the sin of avarice and the virtues of justice, moderation, liberality and charity. Avarice, an essentially selfish act, was a danger to social harmony, evoking frequent appeals to the ideals of the body politic or common profit. Such concepts were also used to justify inequities in wealth. Emphasis upon extortion and oppression by landowners or officials as avarice or theft equalled that placed upon usury, unjust pricing or deceitful trade by other classes of society. The king was also criticized for allowing or participating in exploitation.