The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: Risks and potential

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13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Since regular radio broadcasts started in the 1920s, the exposure to humanmade electromagnetic fields has steadily increased. These days we are not only exposed to radio waves but also other frequencies from a variety of sources, mainly from communication and security devices. Considering that nearly all biological systems interact with electromagnetic fields, understanding the affects is essential for safety and technological progress. This paper systematically reviews the role and effects of static and pulsed radio frequencies (100-109 Hz), millimetre waves (MMWs) or gigahertz (109-1011 Hz), and terahertz (1011-1013 Hz) on various biomolecules, cells and tissues. Electromagnetic fields have been shown to affect the activity in cell membranes (sodium versus potassium ion conductivities) and non-selective channels, transmembrane potentials and even the cell cycle. Particular attention is given to millimetre and terahertz radiation due to their increasing utilization and, hence, increasing human exposure. MMWs are known to alter active transport across cell membranes, and it has been reported that terahertz radiation may interfere with DNA and cause genomic instabilities. These and other phenomena are discussed along with the discrepancies and controversies from published studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number0585
JournalJournal of the Royal Society Interface
Volume14
Issue number137
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

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Electromagnetic Fields
Terahertz Radiation
Electromagnetic fields
Cell membranes
Tissue
Radio
Millimeter waves
Cell Membrane
Radio Waves
Radiation
Radio waves
Active Biological Transport
Genomic Instability
Biomolecules
Biological systems
Membrane Potentials
Potassium
Cell Cycle
DNA
Sodium

Cite this

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title = "The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: Risks and potential",
abstract = "Since regular radio broadcasts started in the 1920s, the exposure to humanmade electromagnetic fields has steadily increased. These days we are not only exposed to radio waves but also other frequencies from a variety of sources, mainly from communication and security devices. Considering that nearly all biological systems interact with electromagnetic fields, understanding the affects is essential for safety and technological progress. This paper systematically reviews the role and effects of static and pulsed radio frequencies (100-109 Hz), millimetre waves (MMWs) or gigahertz (109-1011 Hz), and terahertz (1011-1013 Hz) on various biomolecules, cells and tissues. Electromagnetic fields have been shown to affect the activity in cell membranes (sodium versus potassium ion conductivities) and non-selective channels, transmembrane potentials and even the cell cycle. Particular attention is given to millimetre and terahertz radiation due to their increasing utilization and, hence, increasing human exposure. MMWs are known to alter active transport across cell membranes, and it has been reported that terahertz radiation may interfere with DNA and cause genomic instabilities. These and other phenomena are discussed along with the discrepancies and controversies from published studies.",
keywords = "Cell, DNA, Electric field, Millimetre wave, Terahertz radiation, Tissue",
author = "Sergii Romanenko and Ryan Begley and Harvey, {Alan R.} and Livia Hool and Wallace, {Vincent P.}",
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T1 - The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms

T2 - Risks and potential

AU - Romanenko, Sergii

AU - Begley, Ryan

AU - Harvey, Alan R.

AU - Hool, Livia

AU - Wallace, Vincent P.

PY - 2017/12/1

Y1 - 2017/12/1

N2 - Since regular radio broadcasts started in the 1920s, the exposure to humanmade electromagnetic fields has steadily increased. These days we are not only exposed to radio waves but also other frequencies from a variety of sources, mainly from communication and security devices. Considering that nearly all biological systems interact with electromagnetic fields, understanding the affects is essential for safety and technological progress. This paper systematically reviews the role and effects of static and pulsed radio frequencies (100-109 Hz), millimetre waves (MMWs) or gigahertz (109-1011 Hz), and terahertz (1011-1013 Hz) on various biomolecules, cells and tissues. Electromagnetic fields have been shown to affect the activity in cell membranes (sodium versus potassium ion conductivities) and non-selective channels, transmembrane potentials and even the cell cycle. Particular attention is given to millimetre and terahertz radiation due to their increasing utilization and, hence, increasing human exposure. MMWs are known to alter active transport across cell membranes, and it has been reported that terahertz radiation may interfere with DNA and cause genomic instabilities. These and other phenomena are discussed along with the discrepancies and controversies from published studies.

AB - Since regular radio broadcasts started in the 1920s, the exposure to humanmade electromagnetic fields has steadily increased. These days we are not only exposed to radio waves but also other frequencies from a variety of sources, mainly from communication and security devices. Considering that nearly all biological systems interact with electromagnetic fields, understanding the affects is essential for safety and technological progress. This paper systematically reviews the role and effects of static and pulsed radio frequencies (100-109 Hz), millimetre waves (MMWs) or gigahertz (109-1011 Hz), and terahertz (1011-1013 Hz) on various biomolecules, cells and tissues. Electromagnetic fields have been shown to affect the activity in cell membranes (sodium versus potassium ion conductivities) and non-selective channels, transmembrane potentials and even the cell cycle. Particular attention is given to millimetre and terahertz radiation due to their increasing utilization and, hence, increasing human exposure. MMWs are known to alter active transport across cell membranes, and it has been reported that terahertz radiation may interfere with DNA and cause genomic instabilities. These and other phenomena are discussed along with the discrepancies and controversies from published studies.

KW - Cell

KW - DNA

KW - Electric field

KW - Millimetre wave

KW - Terahertz radiation

KW - Tissue

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