The Impact of SGLT2 Inhibitors in the Heart and Kidneys Regardless of Diabetes Status

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Abstract

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) are two devastating diseases that may occur in nondiabetics or individuals with diabetes and, when combined, it is referred to as cardiorenal disease. The impact of cardiorenal disease on society, the economy and the healthcare system is enormous. Although there are numerous therapies for cardiorenal disease, one therapy showing a great deal of promise is sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The SGLT family member, SGLT2, is often implicated in the pathogenesis of a range of diseases, and the dysregulation of the activity of SGLT2 markedly effects the transport of glucose and sodium across the luminal membrane of renal cells. Inhibitors of SGLT2 were developed based on the antidiabetic action initiated by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption, thereby increasing glucosuria. Of great medical significance, large-scale clinical trials utilizing a range of SGLT2 inhibitors have demonstrated both metabolic and biochemical benefits via numerous novel mechanisms, such as sympathoinhibition, which will be discussed in this review. In summary, SGLT2 inhibitors clearly exert cardio-renal protection in people with and without diabetes in both preclinical and clinical settings. This exciting class of inhibitors improve hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia and diabetic retinopathy via multiple mechanisms, of which many are yet to be elucidated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14243
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume24
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

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