OBJECTIVES:: To perform a systematic review on the impact of residual subgingival cement on peri-implant diseases and crestal bone loss. MATERIAL AND METHODS:: MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were used to identify articles published without time limits. RESULTS:: A total of 6 articles were selected for a total of 389 patients (687 implants). The studies were heterogeneous and had a moderate-to-high risk of bias, but met the inclusion criteria. Four of 6 studies were published by the same research group and assessed similar populations over time. A positive relationship between residual cement and peri-implant inflammation was observed. Data on peri-implant probing depths and crestal bone loss were reported in 1 study. CONCLUSION:: Residual subgingival cement seems to be strongly associated with peri-implant mucositis which is a risk factor for increased probing depths crestal bone loss and peri-implantitis. Zinc oxide eugenol cements should be preferred to resin cements especially in patients with a history of periodontitis.