Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a solid tumor largely unresponsive to conventional therapies. Immunological gene therapy shows promise in murine models and human clinical trials; however, the role of surgery in combination with gone therapy has not been widely studied. The aim of this study was to determine if debulking surgery improved the effectiveness of gene therapy in a murine MM model. Mice were subcutaneously inoculated with the MM cell line, AC29, at two different sites, 4 clays apart, to allow a surgical and distal site tumor to develop. Once tumors were established, the surgical site tumor was debulked and vaccination of syngeneic tumor transfectants encoding genes for IL-4, IL-2, GM-CSF, B7-1 or allogeneic MHC molecules commenced at a site away from both tumors, and tumor growth was measured. Neither debulking surgery nor gene therapy alone delayed tumor growth. However, there was a clear delay of tumor growth when debulking surgery was combined with vaccination of tumor transfectants expressing B7-1 or high levels of GM-CSF. Combinations of these two transfectants (lid not lead to a synergistic effect. This study demonstrates that debulking surgery can augment the immunostimulatory effects of immunological gene therapy and can delay tumor growth. This has implications for the future design of human gene therapy trials for solid tumors such as MM.