The hemodynamic consequences of hemorrhage and hypernatremia in two amphibians

S.S. Hillman, P.C. Withers

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Graded hypovolemia was induced by hemorrhagic blood loss and graded hypernatremia by salt load in the toad, Bufo marinus, and the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Maximal blood flow rates in the systemic arches and arterial and venous pressures were measured during activity after each stress. Maximal blood flow rates in the B. marinus did not decline until blood loss exceeded 5% of initial body mass. In R. catesbeiana, losses of 2% initial body mass caused a decline (Fig. 1). Maximal heart rates did not change with hemorrhage (Fig. 2). The decline in blood flow rates with hemorrhage was due to declining pulse volumes in both species (Fig. 3). Arteriovenous pressure difference declined with hemorrhage in both species (Fig. 4). Peripheral resistance increased with hemorrhage in parallel with compromised blood flow rates (Fig. 5). Plasma sodium concentration slightly increased with hemorrhage, while plasma protein concentration and hematocrit declined. Lymphatic compensation for hemorrhagic loss is indicated in both species (Fig. 6). Induced hypernatremia compromised blood flow rates in both species at plasma sodium concentrations above 175 mM. The decline in flow rates was principally a result of a decrease in pulse volume, though maximal heart rates also declined (Figs. 2, 3, 7). Induced hypernatremia had no effect on the arteriovenous pressure difference in B. marinus but caused it to decline in R. catesbeiana. Peripheral resistance increased in only B. marinus but not R. catesbeiana (Figs. 4, 5). Hematocrit did not change with salt load, indicative of a constant vascular volume. © 1988, Springer-Verlag. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)807-812
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic and Environmental Physiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1988

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