© 2016 CSIRO. Avena is a problematic weed of cropping regions of southern Australia and many areas of the world. In 2010, a random survey was conducted across 14million hectares of the Western Australian grain belt to monitor the change in herbicide resistance levels by comparing resistance frequency results with a survey conducted in 2005. Screening Avena populations with herbicides commonly used to control this weed revealed that 48% of Avena populations displayed resistance to the commonly used acetyl-Co A carboxylase-inhibiting herbicides, which was lower than that found in 2005 (71%). The broad-spectrum herbicides glyphosate and paraquat provided good control of all Avena populations. Resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides and to flamprop were detected for the first time in Western Australia in this survey. Therefore, a wide range of weed management options that target all phases of the cropping program are needed to sustain these cropping systems in the future.