The four methods of financial system regulation: An international comparative survey

Andrew Schmulow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article provides a description of the four methods of financial system
regulation currently in use internationally, with case studies illustrating each
system. Analysis is provided of the strengths and weaknesses of each.
Research indicates that the “Twin Peaks” system is superior to its peers.
However, this article also concludes, by reference to failings observed in “Twin
Peaks” arrangements to date, that “Twin Peaks” alone is no panacea against
financial crises, or market and consumer abuse. It is merely the best form of
regulatory architecture. Other factors, such as the capacity and willingness of
the regulators to discharge their mandate, even within a sound regulatory
architecture, are as important to the success of financial system regulation, as
evidenced by the failures in the United Kingdom around the time of the global
financial crisis, and as evidenced by the success of the Monetary Authority of
Singapore, despite Singapore’s sub-optimal regulatory structure.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-172
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Banking and Finance Law and Practice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


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