The effect of phosphorus supply on the formation, morphology and anatomy of cluster roots of Lupinus albus L. cv Ultra grown in a loam and two sandy soils was examined relative to its effect on total root length, shoot weight and the phosphorus concentration of the shoots. The loam soil was most conducive to the formation of cluster roots. Cluster roots growing in the sandy soils developed to a lesser extent on plants of an equivalent phosphorus status, suggesting that some biotic or abiotic factors independent of phosphorus supply were also operating. The presence of mature cluster rootlets on a length of lateral root increased the root surface area by 14-22 times of an equal length of lateral roots not bearing cluster rootlets. The application of phosphorus decreased cluster-root length, whereas total root length showed a steady increase. There was an inverse relationship between cluster-root production and phosphorus concentration in shoots ranging from 2 to 8.5 mg g(-1) with the critical phosphorus level for maximum shoot growth being around 2.5 mg g(-1). Cluster roots formed in solution culture were not well developed in comparison with those grown in the loam soil or nutrient solution with added loam soil. The organisation of the cluster rootlet was similar to that of the lateral roots. Mature rootlets lacked an apical meristem and a vascular cambium with a reduced root cap and cortical tissue.
Peek, C. S., Robson, A. D., & Kuo, J. (2003). The formation, morphology and anatomy of cluster root of Lupinus albus L. as dependent on soil type and phosphorus supply. Plant and Soil, 248(1/2), 237-246. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022367720775