The first supermassive black holes: Indications from models for future observations

Stergios Amarantidis, José Afonso, Hugo Messias, Bruno Henriques, Andrew Griffin, Cedric Lacey, Claudia del P. Lagos, Violeta Gonzalez-Perez, Yohan Dubois, Marta Volonteri, Israel Matute, Ciro Pappalardo, Yuxiang Qin, Ranga Ram Chary, Ray P. Norris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We present an exploration of the expected detection of the earliest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Universe from state-of-art galaxy formation and evolution semi-analytic models and hydrodynamical simulations. We estimate the number and radiative characteristics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z ≥ 6, a redshift range that will be intensively explored by the next generation of telescopes, in particular in the radio through the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and at high energies with ESA's Athena X-ray Observatory. We find that Athena will be able to observe over 5000 AGN deg−2 at the Epoch of Re-ionization (EoR), 6 ≤ z ≤ 10. Similarly, for the same redshift range the models/simulations suggest that SKA will detect at least 400 AGN deg−2. Additionally, we stress the importance of the volume of the simulation box as well as the initial physical conditions of the models/simulations on their effect on the luminosity functions (LFs) and the creation of the most massive SMBHs that we currently observe at the EoR. Furthermore, following the evolution of the accretion mode of the SMBHs in each model/simulation, we show that, while the quasar dominates over the radio mode at the EoR, detection at radio wavelengths still reaches significant numbers even at the highest redshifts. Finally, we present the effect that the radiative efficiency has on the LFs by comparing results produced with a constant value for the radiative efficiency and more complex calculations based on the spin of each SMBH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2694-2709
Number of pages16
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume485
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Feb 2019

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Amarantidis, S., Afonso, J., Messias, H., Henriques, B., Griffin, A., Lacey, C., ... Norris, R. P. (2019). The first supermassive black holes: Indications from models for future observations. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 485(2), 2694-2709. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz551
Amarantidis, Stergios ; Afonso, José ; Messias, Hugo ; Henriques, Bruno ; Griffin, Andrew ; Lacey, Cedric ; Lagos, Claudia del P. ; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta ; Dubois, Yohan ; Volonteri, Marta ; Matute, Israel ; Pappalardo, Ciro ; Qin, Yuxiang ; Chary, Ranga Ram ; Norris, Ray P. / The first supermassive black holes : Indications from models for future observations. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2019 ; Vol. 485, No. 2. pp. 2694-2709.
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abstract = "We present an exploration of the expected detection of the earliest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Universe from state-of-art galaxy formation and evolution semi-analytic models and hydrodynamical simulations. We estimate the number and radiative characteristics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z ≥ 6, a redshift range that will be intensively explored by the next generation of telescopes, in particular in the radio through the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and at high energies with ESA's Athena X-ray Observatory. We find that Athena will be able to observe over 5000 AGN deg−2 at the Epoch of Re-ionization (EoR), 6 ≤ z ≤ 10. Similarly, for the same redshift range the models/simulations suggest that SKA will detect at least 400 AGN deg−2. Additionally, we stress the importance of the volume of the simulation box as well as the initial physical conditions of the models/simulations on their effect on the luminosity functions (LFs) and the creation of the most massive SMBHs that we currently observe at the EoR. Furthermore, following the evolution of the accretion mode of the SMBHs in each model/simulation, we show that, while the quasar dominates over the radio mode at the EoR, detection at radio wavelengths still reaches significant numbers even at the highest redshifts. Finally, we present the effect that the radiative efficiency has on the LFs by comparing results produced with a constant value for the radiative efficiency and more complex calculations based on the spin of each SMBH.",
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Amarantidis, S, Afonso, J, Messias, H, Henriques, B, Griffin, A, Lacey, C, Lagos, CDP, Gonzalez-Perez, V, Dubois, Y, Volonteri, M, Matute, I, Pappalardo, C, Qin, Y, Chary, RR & Norris, RP 2019, 'The first supermassive black holes: Indications from models for future observations' Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 485, no. 2, pp. 2694-2709. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz551

The first supermassive black holes : Indications from models for future observations. / Amarantidis, Stergios; Afonso, José; Messias, Hugo; Henriques, Bruno; Griffin, Andrew; Lacey, Cedric; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Dubois, Yohan; Volonteri, Marta; Matute, Israel; Pappalardo, Ciro; Qin, Yuxiang; Chary, Ranga Ram; Norris, Ray P.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 485, No. 2, 26.02.2019, p. 2694-2709.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The first supermassive black holes

T2 - Indications from models for future observations

AU - Amarantidis, Stergios

AU - Afonso, José

AU - Messias, Hugo

AU - Henriques, Bruno

AU - Griffin, Andrew

AU - Lacey, Cedric

AU - Lagos, Claudia del P.

AU - Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta

AU - Dubois, Yohan

AU - Volonteri, Marta

AU - Matute, Israel

AU - Pappalardo, Ciro

AU - Qin, Yuxiang

AU - Chary, Ranga Ram

AU - Norris, Ray P.

PY - 2019/2/26

Y1 - 2019/2/26

N2 - We present an exploration of the expected detection of the earliest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Universe from state-of-art galaxy formation and evolution semi-analytic models and hydrodynamical simulations. We estimate the number and radiative characteristics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z ≥ 6, a redshift range that will be intensively explored by the next generation of telescopes, in particular in the radio through the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and at high energies with ESA's Athena X-ray Observatory. We find that Athena will be able to observe over 5000 AGN deg−2 at the Epoch of Re-ionization (EoR), 6 ≤ z ≤ 10. Similarly, for the same redshift range the models/simulations suggest that SKA will detect at least 400 AGN deg−2. Additionally, we stress the importance of the volume of the simulation box as well as the initial physical conditions of the models/simulations on their effect on the luminosity functions (LFs) and the creation of the most massive SMBHs that we currently observe at the EoR. Furthermore, following the evolution of the accretion mode of the SMBHs in each model/simulation, we show that, while the quasar dominates over the radio mode at the EoR, detection at radio wavelengths still reaches significant numbers even at the highest redshifts. Finally, we present the effect that the radiative efficiency has on the LFs by comparing results produced with a constant value for the radiative efficiency and more complex calculations based on the spin of each SMBH.

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KW - Galaxies: high-redshift

KW - Quasars: general

KW - Radio continuum: galaxies

KW - X-rays: galaxies

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