The epidemiology of childhood Type 1 diabetes in Western Australia: trends and determinants of incidence

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

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Abstract

Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and in many countries the incidence has been increasing. The aims of this research were to use the population-based data in Western Australia to document trends in childhood Type 1 diabetes and to identify risk factors for the disease. All children diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in Western Australia under the age of 15 years were identified using the Western Australian Children's Diabetes Database. Record linkage to the Western Australian Data Linkage System was undertaken to enable validation of case ascertainment and to obtain perinatal data for cases and all remaining births in the State. Population data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Incidence rates and incidence rate trends of childhood Type 1 diabetes in Western Australia were determined from 1985 to 2010 and analysed by calendar year, gender and age group. The incidence was also examined for seasonal variation by month of diagnosis and month of birth, and for variation by place of residence and socioeconomic status at the time of diagnosis and the time of birth. Associations between the incidence of childhood Type 1 diabetes and potential perinatal risk factors were also examined. Between 1985 and 2010, the mean annual age-standardised incidence for childhood Type 1 diabetes in Western Australia was 18.1 per 100,000 person years. The incidence increased by an average of 2.2% a year, increasing in both genders and all age groups, with the lowest rate of increase observed in 0-4 year olds. A new finding was the observation of a sinusoidal 5-year cyclical variation in the incidence rate trend of childhood Type 1 diabetes. Significant seasonal variation was found with a higher rate of cases diagnosed in the autumn and winter months, but no variation found by month of birth.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Publication statusUnpublished - 2012

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