The Effects of Water-based Exercise Training in People with Type 2 Diabetes

Anna S Scheer, Louise H Naylor, Seng K Gan, Jonathon Charlesworth, Nat Benjanuvatra, Daniel J Green, Andrew J Maiorana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of 8 weeks of upright water-based exercise training in people with type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Thirteen participants with type 2 diabetes (54% male; 60.9 ± 9.6 years, mean ± standard deviation) completed eight weeks of upright water-based exercise training at a moderate intensity (60-80% of exercise test-derived maximum heart rate), for one hour, three times a week (TG). Fourteen participants (64% male; 63.9 ± 9.8 years) acted as a control group (CG) who maintained their usual activities. Pre- and post-intervention, participants performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to determine VO2peak and one-repetition maximum testing to assess muscular strength. Blood profiles were assessed with standard assays. Body mass index and waist:hip ratio were employed as measures of anthropometry. Endothelium dependent (brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD)) and independent (GTN mediated) function were assessed using vascular ultrasound.

RESULTS: Water-based training increased VO2peak (18.5 ± 4.3 to 21.5 ± 5.4 ml.kg-1.min-1) (p=0.002), overall muscle strength (123 ± 44 to 139 ± 43kg) and leg strength (92 ± 28 to 104 ± 29kg), compared with the CG (p=0.001). The effect on pectoral strength (31 ± 17 to 35 ± 16kg) was not significantly different to the CG (24 ± 12 to 26 ± 14kg) (p=0.08). No change was observed in anthropometry, blood profiles, or GTN mediated vascular function. FMD was increased following training (6.1 ± 2.4 to 6.5 ± 3.0%), compared with controls who demonstrated a slight decrease (6.2 ± 1.6 to 5.4 ± 1.6%) (p=0.002).

CONCLUSION: Water-based circuit training was well tolerated and appears to be an effective exercise modality for improving aerobic fitness, strength and vascular function in people with type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Aug 2019

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Exercise
Blood Vessels
Anthropometry
Water
Control Groups
Dilatation
Waist-Hip Ratio
Brachial Artery
Muscle Strength
Exercise Test
Endothelium
Leg
Body Mass Index
Heart Rate

Cite this

@article{ecfdb0071e4644c59377aa367f10c53d,
title = "The Effects of Water-based Exercise Training in People with Type 2 Diabetes",
abstract = "PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of 8 weeks of upright water-based exercise training in people with type 2 diabetes.METHODS: Thirteen participants with type 2 diabetes (54{\%} male; 60.9 ± 9.6 years, mean ± standard deviation) completed eight weeks of upright water-based exercise training at a moderate intensity (60-80{\%} of exercise test-derived maximum heart rate), for one hour, three times a week (TG). Fourteen participants (64{\%} male; 63.9 ± 9.8 years) acted as a control group (CG) who maintained their usual activities. Pre- and post-intervention, participants performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to determine VO2peak and one-repetition maximum testing to assess muscular strength. Blood profiles were assessed with standard assays. Body mass index and waist:hip ratio were employed as measures of anthropometry. Endothelium dependent (brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD)) and independent (GTN mediated) function were assessed using vascular ultrasound.RESULTS: Water-based training increased VO2peak (18.5 ± 4.3 to 21.5 ± 5.4 ml.kg-1.min-1) (p=0.002), overall muscle strength (123 ± 44 to 139 ± 43kg) and leg strength (92 ± 28 to 104 ± 29kg), compared with the CG (p=0.001). The effect on pectoral strength (31 ± 17 to 35 ± 16kg) was not significantly different to the CG (24 ± 12 to 26 ± 14kg) (p=0.08). No change was observed in anthropometry, blood profiles, or GTN mediated vascular function. FMD was increased following training (6.1 ± 2.4 to 6.5 ± 3.0{\%}), compared with controls who demonstrated a slight decrease (6.2 ± 1.6 to 5.4 ± 1.6{\%}) (p=0.002).CONCLUSION: Water-based circuit training was well tolerated and appears to be an effective exercise modality for improving aerobic fitness, strength and vascular function in people with type 2 diabetes.",
author = "Scheer, {Anna S} and Naylor, {Louise H} and Gan, {Seng K} and Jonathon Charlesworth and Nat Benjanuvatra and Green, {Daniel J} and Maiorana, {Andrew J}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1249/MSS.0000000000002133",
language = "English",
journal = "Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise",
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The Effects of Water-based Exercise Training in People with Type 2 Diabetes. / Scheer, Anna S; Naylor, Louise H; Gan, Seng K; Charlesworth, Jonathon; Benjanuvatra, Nat; Green, Daniel J; Maiorana, Andrew J.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28.08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Effects of Water-based Exercise Training in People with Type 2 Diabetes

AU - Scheer, Anna S

AU - Naylor, Louise H

AU - Gan, Seng K

AU - Charlesworth, Jonathon

AU - Benjanuvatra, Nat

AU - Green, Daniel J

AU - Maiorana, Andrew J

PY - 2019/8/28

Y1 - 2019/8/28

N2 - PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of 8 weeks of upright water-based exercise training in people with type 2 diabetes.METHODS: Thirteen participants with type 2 diabetes (54% male; 60.9 ± 9.6 years, mean ± standard deviation) completed eight weeks of upright water-based exercise training at a moderate intensity (60-80% of exercise test-derived maximum heart rate), for one hour, three times a week (TG). Fourteen participants (64% male; 63.9 ± 9.8 years) acted as a control group (CG) who maintained their usual activities. Pre- and post-intervention, participants performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to determine VO2peak and one-repetition maximum testing to assess muscular strength. Blood profiles were assessed with standard assays. Body mass index and waist:hip ratio were employed as measures of anthropometry. Endothelium dependent (brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD)) and independent (GTN mediated) function were assessed using vascular ultrasound.RESULTS: Water-based training increased VO2peak (18.5 ± 4.3 to 21.5 ± 5.4 ml.kg-1.min-1) (p=0.002), overall muscle strength (123 ± 44 to 139 ± 43kg) and leg strength (92 ± 28 to 104 ± 29kg), compared with the CG (p=0.001). The effect on pectoral strength (31 ± 17 to 35 ± 16kg) was not significantly different to the CG (24 ± 12 to 26 ± 14kg) (p=0.08). No change was observed in anthropometry, blood profiles, or GTN mediated vascular function. FMD was increased following training (6.1 ± 2.4 to 6.5 ± 3.0%), compared with controls who demonstrated a slight decrease (6.2 ± 1.6 to 5.4 ± 1.6%) (p=0.002).CONCLUSION: Water-based circuit training was well tolerated and appears to be an effective exercise modality for improving aerobic fitness, strength and vascular function in people with type 2 diabetes.

AB - PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of 8 weeks of upright water-based exercise training in people with type 2 diabetes.METHODS: Thirteen participants with type 2 diabetes (54% male; 60.9 ± 9.6 years, mean ± standard deviation) completed eight weeks of upright water-based exercise training at a moderate intensity (60-80% of exercise test-derived maximum heart rate), for one hour, three times a week (TG). Fourteen participants (64% male; 63.9 ± 9.8 years) acted as a control group (CG) who maintained their usual activities. Pre- and post-intervention, participants performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to determine VO2peak and one-repetition maximum testing to assess muscular strength. Blood profiles were assessed with standard assays. Body mass index and waist:hip ratio were employed as measures of anthropometry. Endothelium dependent (brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD)) and independent (GTN mediated) function were assessed using vascular ultrasound.RESULTS: Water-based training increased VO2peak (18.5 ± 4.3 to 21.5 ± 5.4 ml.kg-1.min-1) (p=0.002), overall muscle strength (123 ± 44 to 139 ± 43kg) and leg strength (92 ± 28 to 104 ± 29kg), compared with the CG (p=0.001). The effect on pectoral strength (31 ± 17 to 35 ± 16kg) was not significantly different to the CG (24 ± 12 to 26 ± 14kg) (p=0.08). No change was observed in anthropometry, blood profiles, or GTN mediated vascular function. FMD was increased following training (6.1 ± 2.4 to 6.5 ± 3.0%), compared with controls who demonstrated a slight decrease (6.2 ± 1.6 to 5.4 ± 1.6%) (p=0.002).CONCLUSION: Water-based circuit training was well tolerated and appears to be an effective exercise modality for improving aerobic fitness, strength and vascular function in people with type 2 diabetes.

U2 - 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002133

DO - 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002133

M3 - Article

JO - Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

JF - Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

ER -