Feeding freshwater crayfish species with different diets not only affects the water quality but also induces the abundance of various microbial communities in their digestive tracts. In this context, very limited research has been undertaken to understand the impacts of various protein incorporated aqua-diets on the characteristics of water and its microbial communities. In this study, we have critically analysed the water quality parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphorus, as well as bacterial communities under marron (Cherax cainii) aquaculture, fed fishmeal (FM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM)-based diets for 60 days. The results unveiled that over the time, feeding has significant impacts on organic waste accumulation, especially ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate, while no effects were observed on pH and dissolved oxygen. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequence data of water sample indicated significant (P < 0.05) shift of microbial abundance in post-fed FM and PBM water with the evidence of microbial transmission from the gut of marron. Post-fed marron resulted in a significant correlation of Hafnia, Enterobacter, Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Aquitella with the quality and microbial population of water. The results of this study generated valuable knowledge database of microbes-water relationship for better health management practices and production of marron aquaculture fed with FM and PBM diets in under restricted feeding regime with the feeding ratios provided.