The effect of the combined use of silver diamine fluoride and potassium iodide in disrupting the plaque biofilm microbiome and alleviating tooth discoloration: A systematic review

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Abstract

Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is used in minimally invasive dentistry for arresting dental caries. However, discoloration of teeth is a significant side effect that has limited the use of SDF. Hence, the application of potassium iodide (KI) following SDF has been proposed to ameliorate the staining. Although antimicrobial activity is one of the major mechanisms of the caries-arresting effect of SDF, the antimicrobial potency of SDF/KI combination is unclear. Thus, the primary objective of this systematic review was to appraise the studies on the antimicrobial efficacy of SDF/KI combination on cariogenic microbes. The secondary objective was to summarize the evidence on the potential of KI in reducing the discoloration associated with the application of SDF. Electronic databases of Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EBSCO host were searched for English language manuscripts from January 2005 to 15th November 2020. The reference lists of these manuscripts were manually searched for additional studies. Twelve studies were included in the final analysis, seven of which have investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of SDF/KI, and the rest have examined the anti-staining potential of KI. The exploratory findings from the reviewed articles revealed the promising antimicrobial potential of SDF/KI on cariogenic microbes associated with dentine caries. There is, however, contradictory evidence on the effect of SDF/KI on tooth color. The reviewed in-vitro studies indicated significant effectiveness of KI in preventing staining. A clinical trial on primary dentition showed 25% reduction in the incidence of staining by SDF after applying KI, while a clinical study on root caries in adults showed no significant effect. Within the methodological limitations of this review, we conclude that for arresting dental caries, SDF could be combined with KI, as there may be a lower likelihood of staining. Further, well-designed clinical trials on the antimicrobial and anti-staining effect of SDF/KI are needed to obtain more robust evidence.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0252734
JournalPLoS One
Volume16
Issue number6 June 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

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