The Effect of Dosing Regimens on the Antimalarial Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data

J. Achan, I.I. Adam, E. Arinaitwe, E.A. Ashley, G.R. Awab, M.S. Ba, K.I. Barnes, Q. Bassat, S. Borrmann, T. Bousema, P. Dahal, U. D'Alessandro, Timothy Davis, A.M. Dondorp, G. Dorsey, C.J. Drakeley, C.I. Fanello, B.F. Faye, J.A. Flegg, O.H. GayeP.W. Gething, R. González, P.J. Guérin, S.I. Hay, T.T. Hien, B. Janssens, M.R. Kamya, C. Karema, H.A. Karunajeewa, M.W. Koné, B. Lell, K. Marsh, M. Mayxay, C. Menéndez, P.F. Mens, M.M. Meremikwu, C. Moreira, I. Müeller, C. Nabasumba, M. Nambozi, J.L.A. Ndiaye, P.N. Newton, T.N. Nguyen, F. Nosten, C. Nsanzabana, S.A. Omar, J.B. Ouédraogo, L.K. Pénali, M. Pene, A. Phyo, P. Piola, R.N. Price, P. Sasithon, P.J. Rosenthal, A. Samè-Ekobo, P. Sawa, H.D.F.H. Schallig, S.A. Shekalaghe, C.H. Sibley, J. Smith, F.M. Smithuis, A.F. Somé, K. Stepniewska, A.O. Talisuna, J. Tärning, E. Tjitra, R.C.K. Tine, H. Tinto, N. Valecha, M. Van Herp, M. Van Vugt, N.J. White, C.J. Woodrow, W. Yavo, A. Yeka, I. Zongo

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    Background:Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is increasingly recommended for antimalarial treatment in many endemic countries; however, concerns have been raised over its potential under dosing in young children. We investigated the influence of different dosing schedules on DP's clinical efficacy.Methods and Findings:A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all studies published between 1960 and February 2013, in which patients were enrolled and treated with DP. Principal investigators were approached and invited to share individual patient data with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). Data were pooled using a standardised methodology. Univariable and multivariable risk factors for parasite recrudescence were identified using a Cox's regression model with shared frailty across the study sites. Twenty-four published and two unpublished studies (n = 7,072 patients) were included in the analysis. After correcting for reinfection by parasite genotyping, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were 97.7% (95% CI 97.3%-98.1%) at day 42 and 97.2% (95% CI 96.7%-97.7%) at day 63. Overall 28.6% (979/3,429) of children aged 1 to 5 years received a total dose of piperaquine below 48 mg/kg (the lower limit recommended by WHO); this risk was 2.3-2.9-fold greater compared to that in the other age groups and was associated with reduced efficacy at day 63 (94.4% [95% CI 92.6%-96.2%], p
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-17
    JournalPLoS Medicine
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 2013


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