The effect of bedtime snacks on fasting blood glucose levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

Meg Henze, Hanna Burbidge, Elizabeth Nathan, Dorothy F. Graham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: To investigate the effect of different bedtime snacks (higher carbohydrate versus lower carbohydrate versus no snack) on first morning fasting blood glucose levels (BGLs) in women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and borderline fasting glucose levels. Methods: This prospective randomised crossover trial enrolled women with diet controlled GDM between 24 and 34 weeks gestation who had two or more first morning fasting BGLs between 4.7 and 5.4 mmol/L in the week prior to recruitment. The women were randomly allocated to 6 different orders of 5 days each of a standardised higher carbohydrate bedtime snack, a lower carbohydrate bedtime snack and no bedtime snack. The primary outcome was fasting capillary BGL as measured with a home glucometer, and the secondary outcome was requirement for insulin as assessed by a physician. Results: A total of 68 women with GDM were enrolled in and completed the study at a median gestation of 30.8 weeks. Compared with no bedtime snack, the higher carbohydrate snack (4.96 vs 4.87 mmol/L, mean difference: 0.09 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.05–0.13, p < 0.001) and the lower carbohydrate snack (5.01 vs 4.87 mmol/L, mean difference: 0.14 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.09–0.18, p < 0.001) were both associated with a slightly higher fasting BGL the following morning. Conclusions: Taking a bedtime snack was associated with slightly higher fasting BGLs in women with diet-controlled GDM compared with no bedtime snack (Clinical trial registration: ACTRN12617000659303).

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14718
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Issue number3
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


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