The dopamine receptor D4 7-repeat allele and prenatal smoking in ADHD-affected children and their unaffected siblings: no gene-environment interaction

Marieke E Altink, Alejandro Arias-Vásquez, Barbara Franke, Dorine I E Slaats-Willemse, Cathelijne J M Buschgens, Nanda N J Rommelse, Ellen A Fliers, Richard Anney, Keeley-Joanne Brookes, Wai Chen, Michael Gill, Aisling Mulligan, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Margaret Thompson, Joseph A Sergeant, Stephen V Faraone, Philip Asherson, Jan K Buitelaar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) 7-repeat allele and maternal smoking during pregnancy are both considered as risk factors in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have been conducted on their interactive effects in causing ADHD. The purpose of this study is to examine the gene by environment (GxE) interaction of the DRD4 7-repeat allele and smoking during pregnancy on ADHD and oppositional behavior in families from the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics project; and further, to test the hypothesis that the direction of effect of the DRD4 7-repeat allele differs between ADHD affected and unaffected children.

METHODS: Linear mixed models were used to assess main and interactive effects of the DRD4 7-repeat allele and smoking during pregnancy in 539 ADHD-affected children and their 407 unaffected siblings, aged 6-17 years.

RESULTS: There was some evidence pointing to differential effects of the DRD4 7-repeat allele on ADHD and oppositional symptoms in the affected (fewer symptoms) and unaffected children (increasing ADHD symptoms of teacher ratings). Affected children were more often exposed to prenatal smoking than unaffected children. There were limited main effects of prenatal smoking on severity of symptoms. Given the number of tests performed, no indication was found for GxE interactions.

CONCLUSION: Despite the large sample size, no GxE interactions were found. The impact of the DRD4 7-repeat allele might differ, depending on affected status and rater. This finding is discussed in terms of differences in the activity of the dopaminergic system and of different genes involved in rater-specific behaviors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1053-60
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Volume49
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008

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