A panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive with normal human lymphoid cells and with hairy cells has been applied to the immunocytochemical analysis of hairy cell leukemia. Staining was performed by immunoenzymatic methods on frozen sections of bone marrow trephines and extramedullary tissues and on cell smears. Hairy cells reacted with antibodies against HLA-DR, leukocyte common antigen, B-cell antigens (antibodies To15 and B1) and with three anti-hairy cell monoclonal antibodies (S-HCL3, HC1, and HC2). Neoplastic cells in other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders also expressed HLA-DR, leukocyte common, and B-cell antigens but were consistently negative for the antigen detected by monoclonal antibody S-HCL3. Furthermore, hairy cells differed from other neoplastic B-cells in that they were unreactive with monoclonal antibodies against C3b receptors, anti-Leu-1, Tu1, Tu33, and lacked a meshwork of dendritic reticulum cells. These findings establish a distinctive antigenic phenotype for hairy cell leukemia and indicate that it may be diagnosed reliably by immunoenzymatic labeling of tissue sections or cell smears.