Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disorder in which persistent unresolved inflammation and recurrent airway infections play major roles in the initiation and progression of the disease. Little is known about triggering factors modulating the transition to chronic microbial infection and inflammation particularly in young children. Cystic fibrosis respiratory disease starts early in life, with the detection of inflammatory markers and infection evident even before respiratory symptoms arise. Thus, identifying factors that dysregulate immune responsiveness at the earliest stages of the disease will provide novel targets for early therapeutic intervention. Methods: We evaluated the clinical significance of bile acid detection in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of clinically stable preschool-aged children diagnosed with CF. Results: We applied an unbiased classification strategy to categorize these specimens based on bile acid profiles. We provide clear associations linking the presence of bile acids in the lungs with alterations in the expression of inflammatory markers. Using multiple regression analysis, we also demonstrate that clustering based on bile acid profiles is a meaningful predictor of the progression of structural lung disease. Conclusions: Altogether, our work has identified a clinically relevant host-derived factor that may participate in shaping early events in the aetiology of CF respiratory disease.