The COVID-19 Pandemic: SARS-CoV-2 Structure, Infection, Transmission, Symptomology, and Variants of Concern

Paul C. Guest, Prashant Kesharwani, Alexandra E. Butler, Amirhossein Sahebkar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperChapterpeer-review


Since it was first detected in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the world and affected virtually every country and territory. The pathogen driving this pandemic is SARS-CoV-2, a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus which is primarily transmissible though the air and can cause mild to severe respiratory infections in humans. Within the first year of the pandemic, the situation worsened with the emergence of several SARS-CoV-2 variants. Some of these were observed to be more virulent with varying capacities to escape the existing vaccines and were, therefore, denoted as variants of concern. This chapter provides a general overview of the course of the COVID-19 pandemic up to April 2022 with a focus on the structure, infection, transmission, and symptomology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The main objectives were to investigate the effects of the variants of concern on the trajectory of the virus and to highlight a potential pathway for coping with the current and future pandemics.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
EditorsPaul C. Guest
PublisherSpringer Heidelberg
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-28012-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-28011-5
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019

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