The cost-effectiveness of trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccination in communities in South Africa, Vietnam and Australia

Pieter de Boer, Joel Kyle Kelso, Nilimesh Halder, Thi-Phuong-Lan Nguyen, Jocelyn Moyes, Cheryl Cohen, Ian Barr, Maarten Postma, George Johnstone Milne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
201 Downloads (Pure)


Background: To inform national healthcare authorities whether quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) provide better value for money than trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs), we assessed the cost- effectiveness of TIV and QIV in low-and-middle income communities based in South Africa and Vietnam and contrasted these findings with those from a high-income community in Australia. Methods: Individual based dynamic simulation models were interfaced with a health economic analysis model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 15% of the population with QIV or TIV in each community over the period 2003–2013. Vaccination was prioritized for HIV-infected individuals, before elderly aged 65+ years and young children. Country or region-specific data on influenza-strain circula- tion, clinical outcomes and costs were obtained from published sources. The societal perspective was used and outcomes were expressed in International$ (I$) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results: When compared with TIV, we found that QIV would provide a greater reduction in influenza- related morbidity in communities in South Africa and Vietnam as compared with Australia. The incre- mental cost-effectiveness ratio of QIV versus TIV was estimated at I$4183/QALY in South Africa, I $1505/QALY in Vietnam and I$80,966/QALY in Australia.
Conclusions: The cost-effectiveness of QIV varied between communities due to differences in influenza epidemiology, comorbidities, and unit costs. Whether TIV or QIV is the most cost-effective alternative heavily depends on influenza B burden among subpopulations targeted for vaccination in addition to country-specific willingness-to-pay thresholds and budgetary impact.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)997-1007
Number of pages11
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2018


Dive into the research topics of 'The cost-effectiveness of trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccination in communities in South Africa, Vietnam and Australia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this