Neuroprotective effects of curcumin have been shown in previous studies. This updated systematic review of clinical trials aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on neurological disorders. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify clinical trials investigating the effects of curcumin/turmeric supplements alone, or in combination with other ingredients, on neurological diseases. Nineteen studies comprising 1,130 patients met the inclusion criteria. Generally, intervention and study outcomes were heterogeneous. In most of the studies, curcumin had a favorable effect on oxidative stress and inflammation. However, with the exception of AD, curcumin supplementation either alone, or in combination with other ingredients, had beneficial effects on clinical outcomes for the other aforementioned neurodegenerative diseases. For example, the frequency, severity, and duration of migraine attacks, scores on the revised ALS functional rating scale, and the occurrence of motor complications in PD were all significantly improved with curcumin supplementation either alone or in combination with other ingredients. However, in three studies, several adverse side effects (mostly gastrointestinal in nature) were reported. Curcumin supplementation may have favorable effects on inflammatory status and clinical outcomes of patients with neurological disease, although the results were not consistent.