Asia is a globally important source of grain supply and demand, and its demand for grain is continuing to grow. Ensuring that Asian food producers have access to sufficient quantities and qualities of local and imported grains at affordable prices is a major challenge for many Asian governments. To underpin food security, many Asian countries engage in grain trade. The principal grain grown in Australia is wheat, and the majority of Australian wheat is exported to Asia. Two-row spring-type barley is another main grain produced in Australia and is also sold principally in Asia. China is the single most important export market for Australian malting barley. Unfortunately, in May 2020 China announced the introduction of an effective 80% tariff on all Australian barley imported into China, which has halted the barley trade between Australia and China. Australian malting barley is flowing to other Asian markets but will need to enter large feed barley markets such as Saudi Arabia to remain sustainable. Because farmers will receive lower prices for feed barley, the future of barley production in Australia is uncertain, as barley farmers are likely to switch to other more profitable crops, such as wheat and canola.