The Changing Epidemiology of Murray Valley Encephalitis in Australia: The 2011 Outbreak and a Review of the Literature

L.A. Selvey, L. Dailey, M.D.A. Lindsay, P.K. Armstrong, S. Tobin, A.P. Koehler, P.G. Markey, David Smith

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    35 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is the most serious of the endemic arboviruses in Australia. It was responsible for six known large outbreaks of encephalitis in south-eastern Australia in the 1900s, with the last comprising 58 cases in 1974. Since then MVEV clinical cases have been largely confined to the western and central parts of northern Australia.In 2011, high-level MVEV activity occurred in south-eastern Australia for the first time since 1974, accompanied by unusually heavy seasonal MVEV activity in northern Australia. This resulted in 17 confirmed cases of MVEV disease across Australia. Record wet season rainfall was recorded in many areas of Australia in the summer and autumn of 2011. This was associated with significant flooding and increased numbers of the mosquito vector and subsequent MVEV activity. This paper documents the outbreak and adds to our knowledge about disease outcomes, epidemiology of disease and the link between the MVEV activity and environmental factors.Clinical and demographic information from the 17 reported cases was obtained. Cases or family members were interviewed about their activities and location during the incubation period.In contrast to outbreaks prior to 2000, the majority of cases were non-Aboriginal adults, and almost half (40%) of the cases acquired MVEV outside their area of residence. All but two cases occurred in areas of known MVEV activity.This outbreak continues to reflect a change in the demographic pattern of human cases of encephalitic MVEV over the last 20 years. In northern Australia, this is associated with the increasing numbers of non-Aboriginal workers and tourists living and travelling in endemic and epidemic areas, and also identifies an association with activities that lead to high mosquito exposure. This outbreak demonstrates that there is an ongoing risk of MVEV encephalitis to the heavily populated areas of south-eastern Australia. © 2014 Selvey et al.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-18
    JournalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
    Volume8
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

    Fingerprint

    Murray Valley encephalitis virus
    Encephalitis
    Disease Outbreaks
    Epidemiology
    South Australia
    Demography
    Arboviruses
    Virus Diseases
    Culicidae

    Cite this

    Selvey, L.A. ; Dailey, L. ; Lindsay, M.D.A. ; Armstrong, P.K. ; Tobin, S. ; Koehler, A.P. ; Markey, P.G. ; Smith, David. / The Changing Epidemiology of Murray Valley Encephalitis in Australia: The 2011 Outbreak and a Review of the Literature. In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2014 ; Vol. 8, No. 1. pp. 1-18.
    @article{0b5bc42867244d4eb85a41543d2d2d73,
    title = "The Changing Epidemiology of Murray Valley Encephalitis in Australia: The 2011 Outbreak and a Review of the Literature",
    abstract = "Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is the most serious of the endemic arboviruses in Australia. It was responsible for six known large outbreaks of encephalitis in south-eastern Australia in the 1900s, with the last comprising 58 cases in 1974. Since then MVEV clinical cases have been largely confined to the western and central parts of northern Australia.In 2011, high-level MVEV activity occurred in south-eastern Australia for the first time since 1974, accompanied by unusually heavy seasonal MVEV activity in northern Australia. This resulted in 17 confirmed cases of MVEV disease across Australia. Record wet season rainfall was recorded in many areas of Australia in the summer and autumn of 2011. This was associated with significant flooding and increased numbers of the mosquito vector and subsequent MVEV activity. This paper documents the outbreak and adds to our knowledge about disease outcomes, epidemiology of disease and the link between the MVEV activity and environmental factors.Clinical and demographic information from the 17 reported cases was obtained. Cases or family members were interviewed about their activities and location during the incubation period.In contrast to outbreaks prior to 2000, the majority of cases were non-Aboriginal adults, and almost half (40{\%}) of the cases acquired MVEV outside their area of residence. All but two cases occurred in areas of known MVEV activity.This outbreak continues to reflect a change in the demographic pattern of human cases of encephalitic MVEV over the last 20 years. In northern Australia, this is associated with the increasing numbers of non-Aboriginal workers and tourists living and travelling in endemic and epidemic areas, and also identifies an association with activities that lead to high mosquito exposure. This outbreak demonstrates that there is an ongoing risk of MVEV encephalitis to the heavily populated areas of south-eastern Australia. {\circledC} 2014 Selvey et al.",
    author = "L.A. Selvey and L. Dailey and M.D.A. Lindsay and P.K. Armstrong and S. Tobin and A.P. Koehler and P.G. Markey and David Smith",
    year = "2014",
    doi = "10.1371/journal.pntd.0002656",
    language = "English",
    volume = "8",
    pages = "1--18",
    journal = "P L o S NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES",
    issn = "1935-2727",
    publisher = "Public Library of Science (PLoS)",
    number = "1",

    }

    The Changing Epidemiology of Murray Valley Encephalitis in Australia: The 2011 Outbreak and a Review of the Literature. / Selvey, L.A.; Dailey, L.; Lindsay, M.D.A.; Armstrong, P.K.; Tobin, S.; Koehler, A.P.; Markey, P.G.; Smith, David.

    In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2014, p. 1-18.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The Changing Epidemiology of Murray Valley Encephalitis in Australia: The 2011 Outbreak and a Review of the Literature

    AU - Selvey, L.A.

    AU - Dailey, L.

    AU - Lindsay, M.D.A.

    AU - Armstrong, P.K.

    AU - Tobin, S.

    AU - Koehler, A.P.

    AU - Markey, P.G.

    AU - Smith, David

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is the most serious of the endemic arboviruses in Australia. It was responsible for six known large outbreaks of encephalitis in south-eastern Australia in the 1900s, with the last comprising 58 cases in 1974. Since then MVEV clinical cases have been largely confined to the western and central parts of northern Australia.In 2011, high-level MVEV activity occurred in south-eastern Australia for the first time since 1974, accompanied by unusually heavy seasonal MVEV activity in northern Australia. This resulted in 17 confirmed cases of MVEV disease across Australia. Record wet season rainfall was recorded in many areas of Australia in the summer and autumn of 2011. This was associated with significant flooding and increased numbers of the mosquito vector and subsequent MVEV activity. This paper documents the outbreak and adds to our knowledge about disease outcomes, epidemiology of disease and the link between the MVEV activity and environmental factors.Clinical and demographic information from the 17 reported cases was obtained. Cases or family members were interviewed about their activities and location during the incubation period.In contrast to outbreaks prior to 2000, the majority of cases were non-Aboriginal adults, and almost half (40%) of the cases acquired MVEV outside their area of residence. All but two cases occurred in areas of known MVEV activity.This outbreak continues to reflect a change in the demographic pattern of human cases of encephalitic MVEV over the last 20 years. In northern Australia, this is associated with the increasing numbers of non-Aboriginal workers and tourists living and travelling in endemic and epidemic areas, and also identifies an association with activities that lead to high mosquito exposure. This outbreak demonstrates that there is an ongoing risk of MVEV encephalitis to the heavily populated areas of south-eastern Australia. © 2014 Selvey et al.

    AB - Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is the most serious of the endemic arboviruses in Australia. It was responsible for six known large outbreaks of encephalitis in south-eastern Australia in the 1900s, with the last comprising 58 cases in 1974. Since then MVEV clinical cases have been largely confined to the western and central parts of northern Australia.In 2011, high-level MVEV activity occurred in south-eastern Australia for the first time since 1974, accompanied by unusually heavy seasonal MVEV activity in northern Australia. This resulted in 17 confirmed cases of MVEV disease across Australia. Record wet season rainfall was recorded in many areas of Australia in the summer and autumn of 2011. This was associated with significant flooding and increased numbers of the mosquito vector and subsequent MVEV activity. This paper documents the outbreak and adds to our knowledge about disease outcomes, epidemiology of disease and the link between the MVEV activity and environmental factors.Clinical and demographic information from the 17 reported cases was obtained. Cases or family members were interviewed about their activities and location during the incubation period.In contrast to outbreaks prior to 2000, the majority of cases were non-Aboriginal adults, and almost half (40%) of the cases acquired MVEV outside their area of residence. All but two cases occurred in areas of known MVEV activity.This outbreak continues to reflect a change in the demographic pattern of human cases of encephalitic MVEV over the last 20 years. In northern Australia, this is associated with the increasing numbers of non-Aboriginal workers and tourists living and travelling in endemic and epidemic areas, and also identifies an association with activities that lead to high mosquito exposure. This outbreak demonstrates that there is an ongoing risk of MVEV encephalitis to the heavily populated areas of south-eastern Australia. © 2014 Selvey et al.

    U2 - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002656

    DO - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002656

    M3 - Review article

    VL - 8

    SP - 1

    EP - 18

    JO - P L o S NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES

    JF - P L o S NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES

    SN - 1935-2727

    IS - 1

    ER -