The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914

A. S. Bell, G. Bergmann, C. P.L. Berry, D. Bersanetti, A. Bertolini, J. Betzwieser, S. Bhagwat, R. Bhandare, I. A. Bilenko, G. Billingsley, J. Birch, R. Birney, O. Birnholtz, S. Biscans, A. Bisht, M. Bitossi, C. Biwer, M.A. Bizouard, J.K. Blackburn, C. D. Blair & 231 others D. G. Blair, R.M. Blair, S. Bloemen, O. Bock, M. Boer, G. Bogaert, C. Bogan, A. Bohe, C. Bond, F. Bondu, R. Bonnand, B. A. Boom, R. Bork, V. Boschi, S. Bose, Y. Bouffanais, A. Bozzi, C. Bradaschia, V. B. Braginsky, M. Branchesi, J. E. Brau, T. Briant, A. Brillet, M. Brinkmann, V. Brisson, P. Brockill, J. E. Broida, A. F. Brooks, D. A. Brown, N. M. Brown, S. Brunett, C. C. Buchanan, A. Buikema, T. Bulik, H. J. Bulten, A. Buonanno, D. Buskulic, C. Buy, R. L. Byer, M. Cabero, L. Cadonati, G. Cagnoli, C. Cahillane, J. Calderón Bustillo, T. Callister, E. Calloni, J. B. Camp, K. C. Cannon, J. Cao, C. D. Capano, E. Capocasa, F. Carbognani, S. Caride, J. Casanueva Diaz, C. Casentini, S. Caudill, M. Cavaglià, F. Cavalier, R. Cavalieri, G. Cella, C. B. Cepeda, L. Cerboni Baiardi, G. Cerretani, E. Cesarini, S.J. Chamberlin, M. Chan, S. Chao, P. Charlton, E. Chassande-Mottin, H. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Cheng, A. Chincarini, A. Chiummo, H. S. Cho, M. Cho, J.H. Chow, N. Christensen, Q. Chu, S. Chua, S. Chung, G. Ciani, F. Clara, J. A. Clark, F. Cleva, E. Coccia, P. F. Cohadon, A. Colla, C. G. Collette, L. Cominsky, M. Constancio, A. Conte, L. Conti, D. Cook, T.R. Corbitt, A. Corsi, S. Cortese, C. A. Costa, M. W. Coughlin, S. B. Coughlin, J. P. Coulon, S.T. Countryman, P. Couvares, E. E. Cowan, D. M. Coward, M.J. Cowart, R. Day, J. Degallaix, Q. Fang, X. Guo, M. J. Hart, E. J. Howell, L. Ju, G. Kang, T. Kaur, D. B. Kelley, R. Kennedy, J. S. Key, I. Khan, S. Khan, Z. Khan, Chunglee Kim, J. Kim, K. Kim, N. Kim, Y. M. Kim, E. J. King, P. J. King, P. Kumar, R. Kumar, L. Kuo, J. Lange, P. D. Lasky, C. H. Lee, H. K. Lee, H. M. Lee, K. Lee, J. R. Leong, J. B. Lewis, T. G.F. Li, R. Lynch, Y. Ma, D. M. Macleod, R. M. Magee, N. Man, R. McCarthy, D. E. McClelland, S. C. McGuire, D. J. McManus, T. McRae, H. Miao, H. Middleton, A. Miller, A. Miller, B. B. Miller, J. Miller, S. Mitra, B. C. Moore, C. J. Moore, A. W. Muir, S. Mukherjee, D. J. Murphy, P. G. Murray, T. T. Nguyen, S. H. Oh, M. Oliver, D. J. Ottaway, W. Parker, J. Powell, J. Pratt, L. R. Price, J. Qin, J. Read, C. M. Reed, S. Reid, N. A. Robertson, R. Romano, K. Ryan, J. R. Sanders, R. L. Savage, J. Schmidt, J. Scott, S. M. Scott, A. Singh, R. Singh, B. J.J. Slagmolen, J. R. Smith, N. D. Smith, R. J.E. Smith, A. K. Srivastava, B. C. Stephens, R. Stone, S. Strigin, L. Sun, P. J. Sutton, R. Taylor, E. G. Thomas, M. Thomas, P. Thomas, S. Tiwari, M. Tse, P. J. Veitch, D. J. Vine, S. P. Vyatchanin, L. E. Wade, M. Walker, L. Wallace, S. Walsh, G. Wang, H. Wang, M. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Wang, R. L. Ward, J. Warner, L. W. Wei, A. J. Weinstein, R. Weiss, L. Wen, J. T. Whelan, R. D. Williams, A. R. Williamson, J. L. Willis, J. L. Wright, G. Wu, H. Yamamoto, M. Zhang, Y. Zhang, C. Zhao, X. J. Zhu, LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration

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    Abstract

    The first direct gravitational-wave detection was made by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory on September 14, 2015. The GW150914 signal was strong enough to be apparent, without using any waveform model, in the filtered detector strain data. Here, features of the signal visible in the data are analyzed using concepts from Newtonian physics and general relativity, accessible to anyone with a general physics background. The simple analysis presented here is consistent with the fully general-relativistic analyses published elsewhere, in showing that the signal was produced by the inspiral and subsequent merger of two black holes. The black holes were each of approximately 35 Mʘ, still orbited each other as close as ∼350 km apart and subsequently merged to form a single black hole. Similar reasoning, directly from the data, is used to roughly estimate how far these black holes were from the Earth, and the energy that they radiated in gravitational waves.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1600209
    JournalAnnalen der Physik
    Volume529
    Issue number1-2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

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    physics
    gravitational waves
    LIGO (observatory)
    relativity
    waveforms
    detectors
    estimates
    energy

    Cite this

    Bell, A. S., Bergmann, G., Berry, C. P. L., Bersanetti, D., Bertolini, A., Betzwieser, J., ... LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration (2017). The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914. Annalen der Physik, 529(1-2), [1600209]. https://doi.org/10.1002/andp.201600209
    Bell, A. S. ; Bergmann, G. ; Berry, C. P.L. ; Bersanetti, D. ; Bertolini, A. ; Betzwieser, J. ; Bhagwat, S. ; Bhandare, R. ; Bilenko, I. A. ; Billingsley, G. ; Birch, J. ; Birney, R. ; Birnholtz, O. ; Biscans, S. ; Bisht, A. ; Bitossi, M. ; Biwer, C. ; Bizouard, M.A. ; Blackburn, J.K. ; Blair, C. D. ; Blair, D. G. ; Blair, R.M. ; Bloemen, S. ; Bock, O. ; Boer, M. ; Bogaert, G. ; Bogan, C. ; Bohe, A. ; Bond, C. ; Bondu, F. ; Bonnand, R. ; Boom, B. A. ; Bork, R. ; Boschi, V. ; Bose, S. ; Bouffanais, Y. ; Bozzi, A. ; Bradaschia, C. ; Braginsky, V. B. ; Branchesi, M. ; Brau, J. E. ; Briant, T. ; Brillet, A. ; Brinkmann, M. ; Brisson, V. ; Brockill, P. ; Broida, J. E. ; Brooks, A. F. ; Brown, D. A. ; Brown, N. M. ; Brunett, S. ; Buchanan, C. C. ; Buikema, A. ; Bulik, T. ; Bulten, H. J. ; Buonanno, A. ; Buskulic, D. ; Buy, C. ; Byer, R. L. ; Cabero, M. ; Cadonati, L. ; Cagnoli, G. ; Cahillane, C. ; Bustillo, J. Calderón ; Callister, T. ; Calloni, E. ; Camp, J. B. ; Cannon, K. C. ; Cao, J. ; Capano, C. D. ; Capocasa, E. ; Carbognani, F. ; Caride, S. ; Casanueva Diaz, J. ; Casentini, C. ; Caudill, S. ; Cavaglià, M. ; Cavalier, F. ; Cavalieri, R. ; Cella, G. ; Cepeda, C. B. ; Cerboni Baiardi, L. ; Cerretani, G. ; Cesarini, E. ; Chamberlin, S.J. ; Chan, M. ; Chao, S. ; Charlton, P. ; Chassande-Mottin, E. ; Chen, H. Y. ; Chen, Y. ; Cheng, C. ; Chincarini, A. ; Chiummo, A. ; Cho, H. S. ; Cho, M. ; Chow, J.H. ; Christensen, N. ; Chu, Q. ; Chua, S. ; Chung, S. ; Ciani, G. ; Clara, F. ; Clark, J. A. ; Cleva, F. ; Coccia, E. ; Cohadon, P. F. ; Colla, A. ; Collette, C. G. ; Cominsky, L. ; Constancio, M. ; Conte, A. ; Conti, L. ; Cook, D. ; Corbitt, T.R. ; Corsi, A. ; Cortese, S. ; Costa, C. A. ; Coughlin, M. W. ; Coughlin, S. B. ; Coulon, J. P. ; Countryman, S.T. ; Couvares, P. ; Cowan, E. E. ; Coward, D. M. ; Cowart, M.J. ; Day, R. ; Degallaix, J. ; Fang, Q. ; Guo, X. ; Hart, M. J. ; Howell, E. J. ; Ju, L. ; Kang, G. ; Kaur, T. ; Kelley, D. B. ; Kennedy, R. ; Key, J. S. ; Khan, I. ; Khan, S. ; Khan, Z. ; Kim, Chunglee ; Kim, J. ; Kim, K. ; Kim, N. ; Kim, Y. M. ; King, E. J. ; King, P. J. ; Kumar, P. ; Kumar, R. ; Kuo, L. ; Lange, J. ; Lasky, P. D. ; Lee, C. H. ; Lee, H. K. ; Lee, H. M. ; Lee, K. ; Leong, J. R. ; Lewis, J. B. ; Li, T. G.F. ; Lynch, R. ; Ma, Y. ; Macleod, D. M. ; Magee, R. M. ; Man, N. ; McCarthy, R. ; McClelland, D. E. ; McGuire, S. C. ; McManus, D. J. ; McRae, T. ; Miao, H. ; Middleton, H. ; Miller, A. ; Miller, A. ; Miller, B. B. ; Miller, J. ; Mitra, S. ; Moore, B. C. ; Moore, C. J. ; Muir, A. W. ; Mukherjee, S. ; Murphy, D. J. ; Murray, P. G. ; Nguyen, T. T. ; Oh, S. H. ; Oliver, M. ; Ottaway, D. J. ; Parker, W. ; Powell, J. ; Pratt, J. ; Price, L. R. ; Qin, J. ; Read, J. ; Reed, C. M. ; Reid, S. ; Robertson, N. A. ; Romano, R. ; Ryan, K. ; Sanders, J. R. ; Savage, R. L. ; Schmidt, J. ; Scott, J. ; Scott, S. M. ; Singh, A. ; Singh, R. ; Slagmolen, B. J.J. ; Smith, J. R. ; Smith, N. D. ; Smith, R. J.E. ; Srivastava, A. K. ; Stephens, B. C. ; Stone, R. ; Strigin, S. ; Sun, L. ; Sutton, P. J. ; Taylor, R. ; Thomas, E. G. ; Thomas, M. ; Thomas, P. ; Tiwari, S. ; Tse, M. ; Veitch, P. J. ; Vine, D. J. ; Vyatchanin, S. P. ; Wade, L. E. ; Walker, M. ; Wallace, L. ; Walsh, S. ; Wang, G. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, M. ; Wang, X. ; Wang, Y. ; Ward, R. L. ; Warner, J. ; Wei, L. W. ; Weinstein, A. J. ; Weiss, R. ; Wen, L. ; Whelan, J. T. ; Williams, R. D. ; Williamson, A. R. ; Willis, J. L. ; Wright, J. L. ; Wu, G. ; Yamamoto, H. ; Zhang, M. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhao, C. ; Zhu, X. J. ; LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration. / The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914. In: Annalen der Physik. 2017 ; Vol. 529, No. 1-2.
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    abstract = "The first direct gravitational-wave detection was made by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory on September 14, 2015. The GW150914 signal was strong enough to be apparent, without using any waveform model, in the filtered detector strain data. Here, features of the signal visible in the data are analyzed using concepts from Newtonian physics and general relativity, accessible to anyone with a general physics background. The simple analysis presented here is consistent with the fully general-relativistic analyses published elsewhere, in showing that the signal was produced by the inspiral and subsequent merger of two black holes. The black holes were each of approximately 35 Mʘ, still orbited each other as close as ∼350 km apart and subsequently merged to form a single black hole. Similar reasoning, directly from the data, is used to roughly estimate how far these black holes were from the Earth, and the energy that they radiated in gravitational waves.",
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    author = "Bell, {A. S.} and G. Bergmann and Berry, {C. P.L.} and D. Bersanetti and A. Bertolini and J. Betzwieser and S. Bhagwat and R. Bhandare and Bilenko, {I. A.} and G. Billingsley and J. Birch and R. Birney and O. Birnholtz and S. Biscans and A. Bisht and M. Bitossi and C. Biwer and M.A. Bizouard and J.K. Blackburn and Blair, {C. D.} and Blair, {D. G.} and R.M. Blair and S. Bloemen and O. Bock and M. Boer and G. Bogaert and C. Bogan and A. Bohe and C. Bond and F. Bondu and R. Bonnand and Boom, {B. A.} and R. Bork and V. Boschi and S. Bose and Y. Bouffanais and A. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and Braginsky, {V. B.} and M. Branchesi and Brau, {J. E.} and T. Briant and A. Brillet and M. Brinkmann and V. Brisson and P. Brockill and Broida, {J. E.} and Brooks, {A. F.} and Brown, {D. A.} and Brown, {N. M.} and S. Brunett and Buchanan, {C. C.} and A. Buikema and T. Bulik and Bulten, {H. J.} and A. Buonanno and D. Buskulic and C. Buy and Byer, {R. L.} and M. Cabero and L. Cadonati and G. Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and Bustillo, {J. Calder{\'o}n} and T. Callister and E. Calloni and Camp, {J. B.} and Cannon, {K. C.} and J. Cao and Capano, {C. D.} and E. Capocasa and F. Carbognani and S. Caride and {Casanueva Diaz}, J. and C. Casentini and S. Caudill and M. Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and G. Cella and Cepeda, {C. B.} and {Cerboni Baiardi}, L. and G. Cerretani and E. Cesarini and S.J. Chamberlin and M. Chan and S. Chao and P. Charlton and E. Chassande-Mottin and Chen, {H. Y.} and Y. Chen and C. Cheng and A. Chincarini and A. Chiummo and Cho, {H. S.} and M. Cho and J.H. Chow and N. Christensen and Q. Chu and S. Chua and S. Chung and G. Ciani and F. Clara and Clark, {J. A.} and F. Cleva and E. Coccia and Cohadon, {P. F.} and A. Colla and Collette, {C. G.} and L. Cominsky and M. Constancio and A. Conte and L. Conti and D. Cook and T.R. Corbitt and A. Corsi and S. Cortese and Costa, {C. A.} and Coughlin, {M. W.} and Coughlin, {S. B.} and Coulon, {J. P.} and S.T. Countryman and P. Couvares and Cowan, {E. E.} and Coward, {D. M.} and M.J. Cowart and R. Day and J. Degallaix and Q. Fang and X. Guo and Hart, {M. J.} and Howell, {E. J.} and L. Ju and G. Kang and T. Kaur and Kelley, {D. B.} and R. Kennedy and Key, {J. S.} and I. Khan and S. Khan and Z. Khan and Chunglee Kim and J. Kim and K. Kim and N. Kim and Kim, {Y. M.} and King, {E. J.} and King, {P. J.} and P. Kumar and R. Kumar and L. Kuo and J. Lange and Lasky, {P. D.} and Lee, {C. H.} and Lee, {H. K.} and Lee, {H. M.} and K. Lee and Leong, {J. R.} and Lewis, {J. B.} and Li, {T. G.F.} and R. Lynch and Y. Ma and Macleod, {D. M.} and Magee, {R. M.} and N. Man and R. McCarthy and McClelland, {D. E.} and McGuire, {S. C.} and McManus, {D. J.} and T. McRae and H. Miao and H. Middleton and A. Miller and A. Miller and Miller, {B. B.} and J. Miller and S. Mitra and Moore, {B. C.} and Moore, {C. J.} and Muir, {A. W.} and S. Mukherjee and Murphy, {D. J.} and Murray, {P. G.} and Nguyen, {T. T.} and Oh, {S. H.} and M. Oliver and Ottaway, {D. J.} and W. Parker and J. Powell and J. Pratt and Price, {L. R.} and J. Qin and J. Read and Reed, {C. M.} and S. Reid and Robertson, {N. A.} and R. Romano and K. Ryan and Sanders, {J. R.} and Savage, {R. L.} and J. Schmidt and J. Scott and Scott, {S. M.} and A. Singh and R. Singh and Slagmolen, {B. J.J.} and Smith, {J. R.} and Smith, {N. D.} and Smith, {R. J.E.} and Srivastava, {A. K.} and Stephens, {B. C.} and R. Stone and S. Strigin and L. Sun and Sutton, {P. J.} and R. Taylor and Thomas, {E. G.} and M. Thomas and P. Thomas and S. Tiwari and M. Tse and Veitch, {P. J.} and Vine, {D. J.} and Vyatchanin, {S. P.} and Wade, {L. E.} and M. Walker and L. Wallace and S. Walsh and G. Wang and H. Wang and M. Wang and X. Wang and Y. Wang and Ward, {R. L.} and J. Warner and Wei, {L. W.} and Weinstein, {A. J.} and R. Weiss and L. Wen and Whelan, {J. T.} and Williams, {R. D.} and Williamson, {A. R.} and Willis, {J. L.} and Wright, {J. L.} and G. Wu and H. Yamamoto and M. Zhang and Y. Zhang and C. Zhao and Zhu, {X. J.} and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration}",
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    }

    Bell, AS, Bergmann, G, Berry, CPL, Bersanetti, D, Bertolini, A, Betzwieser, J, Bhagwat, S, Bhandare, R, Bilenko, IA, Billingsley, G, Birch, J, Birney, R, Birnholtz, O, Biscans, S, Bisht, A, Bitossi, M, Biwer, C, Bizouard, MA, Blackburn, JK, Blair, CD, Blair, DG, Blair, RM, Bloemen, S, Bock, O, Boer, M, Bogaert, G, Bogan, C, Bohe, A, Bond, C, Bondu, F, Bonnand, R, Boom, BA, Bork, R, Boschi, V, Bose, S, Bouffanais, Y, Bozzi, A, Bradaschia, C, Braginsky, VB, Branchesi, M, Brau, JE, Briant, T, Brillet, A, Brinkmann, M, Brisson, V, Brockill, P, Broida, JE, Brooks, AF, Brown, DA, Brown, NM, Brunett, S, Buchanan, CC, Buikema, A, Bulik, T, Bulten, HJ, Buonanno, A, Buskulic, D, Buy, C, Byer, RL, Cabero, M, Cadonati, L, Cagnoli, G, Cahillane, C, Bustillo, JC, Callister, T, Calloni, E, Camp, JB, Cannon, KC, Cao, J, Capano, CD, Capocasa, E, Carbognani, F, Caride, S, Casanueva Diaz, J, Casentini, C, Caudill, S, Cavaglià, M, Cavalier, F, Cavalieri, R, Cella, G, Cepeda, CB, Cerboni Baiardi, L, Cerretani, G, Cesarini, E, Chamberlin, SJ, Chan, M, Chao, S, Charlton, P, Chassande-Mottin, E, Chen, HY, Chen, Y, Cheng, C, Chincarini, A, Chiummo, A, Cho, HS, Cho, M, Chow, JH, Christensen, N, Chu, Q, Chua, S, Chung, S, Ciani, G, Clara, F, Clark, JA, Cleva, F, Coccia, E, Cohadon, PF, Colla, A, Collette, CG, Cominsky, L, Constancio, M, Conte, A, Conti, L, Cook, D, Corbitt, TR, Corsi, A, Cortese, S, Costa, CA, Coughlin, MW, Coughlin, SB, Coulon, JP, Countryman, ST, Couvares, P, Cowan, EE, Coward, DM, Cowart, MJ, Day, R, Degallaix, J, Fang, Q, Guo, X, Hart, MJ, Howell, EJ, Ju, L, Kang, G, Kaur, T, Kelley, DB, Kennedy, R, Key, JS, Khan, I, Khan, S, Khan, Z, Kim, C, Kim, J, Kim, K, Kim, N, Kim, YM, King, EJ, King, PJ, Kumar, P, Kumar, R, Kuo, L, Lange, J, Lasky, PD, Lee, CH, Lee, HK, Lee, HM, Lee, K, Leong, JR, Lewis, JB, Li, TGF, Lynch, R, Ma, Y, Macleod, DM, Magee, RM, Man, N, McCarthy, R, McClelland, DE, McGuire, SC, McManus, DJ, McRae, T, Miao, H, Middleton, H, Miller, A, Miller, A, Miller, BB, Miller, J, Mitra, S, Moore, BC, Moore, CJ, Muir, AW, Mukherjee, S, Murphy, DJ, Murray, PG, Nguyen, TT, Oh, SH, Oliver, M, Ottaway, DJ, Parker, W, Powell, J, Pratt, J, Price, LR, Qin, J, Read, J, Reed, CM, Reid, S, Robertson, NA, Romano, R, Ryan, K, Sanders, JR, Savage, RL, Schmidt, J, Scott, J, Scott, SM, Singh, A, Singh, R, Slagmolen, BJJ, Smith, JR, Smith, ND, Smith, RJE, Srivastava, AK, Stephens, BC, Stone, R, Strigin, S, Sun, L, Sutton, PJ, Taylor, R, Thomas, EG, Thomas, M, Thomas, P, Tiwari, S, Tse, M, Veitch, PJ, Vine, DJ, Vyatchanin, SP, Wade, LE, Walker, M, Wallace, L, Walsh, S, Wang, G, Wang, H, Wang, M, Wang, X, Wang, Y, Ward, RL, Warner, J, Wei, LW, Weinstein, AJ, Weiss, R, Wen, L, Whelan, JT, Williams, RD, Williamson, AR, Willis, JL, Wright, JL, Wu, G, Yamamoto, H, Zhang, M, Zhang, Y, Zhao, C, Zhu, XJ & LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration 2017, 'The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914' Annalen der Physik, vol. 529, no. 1-2, 1600209. https://doi.org/10.1002/andp.201600209

    The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914. / Bell, A. S.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P.L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M.A.; Blackburn, J.K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R.M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S.J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J.H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.R.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. P.; Countryman, S.T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.J.; Day, R.; Degallaix, J.; Fang, Q.; Guo, X.; Hart, M. J.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Kang, G.; Kaur, T.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y. M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Lange, J.; Lasky, P. D.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Leong, J. R.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G.F.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macleod, D. M.; Magee, R. M.; Man, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Miller, A.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Mitra, S.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, S.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Oh, S. H.; Oliver, M.; Ottaway, D. J.; Parker, W.; Powell, J.; Pratt, J.; Price, L. R.; Qin, J.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Robertson, N. A.; Romano, R.; Ryan, K.; Sanders, J. R.; Savage, R. L.; Schmidt, J.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Slagmolen, B. J.J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J.E.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strigin, S.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Tiwari, S.; Tse, M.; Veitch, P. J.; Vine, D. J.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Wei, L. W.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Whelan, J. T.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, X. J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration.

    In: Annalen der Physik, Vol. 529, No. 1-2, 1600209, 01.01.2017.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914

    AU - Bell, A. S.

    AU - Bergmann, G.

    AU - Berry, C. P.L.

    AU - Bersanetti, D.

    AU - Bertolini, A.

    AU - Betzwieser, J.

    AU - Bhagwat, S.

    AU - Bhandare, R.

    AU - Bilenko, I. A.

    AU - Billingsley, G.

    AU - Birch, J.

    AU - Birney, R.

    AU - Birnholtz, O.

    AU - Biscans, S.

    AU - Bisht, A.

    AU - Bitossi, M.

    AU - Biwer, C.

    AU - Bizouard, M.A.

    AU - Blackburn, J.K.

    AU - Blair, C. D.

    AU - Blair, D. G.

    AU - Blair, R.M.

    AU - Bloemen, S.

    AU - Bock, O.

    AU - Boer, M.

    AU - Bogaert, G.

    AU - Bogan, C.

    AU - Bohe, A.

    AU - Bond, C.

    AU - Bondu, F.

    AU - Bonnand, R.

    AU - Boom, B. A.

    AU - Bork, R.

    AU - Boschi, V.

    AU - Bose, S.

    AU - Bouffanais, Y.

    AU - Bozzi, A.

    AU - Bradaschia, C.

    AU - Braginsky, V. B.

    AU - Branchesi, M.

    AU - Brau, J. E.

    AU - Briant, T.

    AU - Brillet, A.

    AU - Brinkmann, M.

    AU - Brisson, V.

    AU - Brockill, P.

    AU - Broida, J. E.

    AU - Brooks, A. F.

    AU - Brown, D. A.

    AU - Brown, N. M.

    AU - Brunett, S.

    AU - Buchanan, C. C.

    AU - Buikema, A.

    AU - Bulik, T.

    AU - Bulten, H. J.

    AU - Buonanno, A.

    AU - Buskulic, D.

    AU - Buy, C.

    AU - Byer, R. L.

    AU - Cabero, M.

    AU - Cadonati, L.

    AU - Cagnoli, G.

    AU - Cahillane, C.

    AU - Bustillo, J. Calderón

    AU - Callister, T.

    AU - Calloni, E.

    AU - Camp, J. B.

    AU - Cannon, K. C.

    AU - Cao, J.

    AU - Capano, C. D.

    AU - Capocasa, E.

    AU - Carbognani, F.

    AU - Caride, S.

    AU - Casanueva Diaz, J.

    AU - Casentini, C.

    AU - Caudill, S.

    AU - Cavaglià, M.

    AU - Cavalier, F.

    AU - Cavalieri, R.

    AU - Cella, G.

    AU - Cepeda, C. B.

    AU - Cerboni Baiardi, L.

    AU - Cerretani, G.

    AU - Cesarini, E.

    AU - Chamberlin, S.J.

    AU - Chan, M.

    AU - Chao, S.

    AU - Charlton, P.

    AU - Chassande-Mottin, E.

    AU - Chen, H. Y.

    AU - Chen, Y.

    AU - Cheng, C.

    AU - Chincarini, A.

    AU - Chiummo, A.

    AU - Cho, H. S.

    AU - Cho, M.

    AU - Chow, J.H.

    AU - Christensen, N.

    AU - Chu, Q.

    AU - Chua, S.

    AU - Chung, S.

    AU - Ciani, G.

    AU - Clara, F.

    AU - Clark, J. A.

    AU - Cleva, F.

    AU - Coccia, E.

    AU - Cohadon, P. F.

    AU - Colla, A.

    AU - Collette, C. G.

    AU - Cominsky, L.

    AU - Constancio, M.

    AU - Conte, A.

    AU - Conti, L.

    AU - Cook, D.

    AU - Corbitt, T.R.

    AU - Corsi, A.

    AU - Cortese, S.

    AU - Costa, C. A.

    AU - Coughlin, M. W.

    AU - Coughlin, S. B.

    AU - Coulon, J. P.

    AU - Countryman, S.T.

    AU - Couvares, P.

    AU - Cowan, E. E.

    AU - Coward, D. M.

    AU - Cowart, M.J.

    AU - Day, R.

    AU - Degallaix, J.

    AU - Fang, Q.

    AU - Guo, X.

    AU - Hart, M. J.

    AU - Howell, E. J.

    AU - Ju, L.

    AU - Kang, G.

    AU - Kaur, T.

    AU - Kelley, D. B.

    AU - Kennedy, R.

    AU - Key, J. S.

    AU - Khan, I.

    AU - Khan, S.

    AU - Khan, Z.

    AU - Kim, Chunglee

    AU - Kim, J.

    AU - Kim, K.

    AU - Kim, N.

    AU - Kim, Y. M.

    AU - King, E. J.

    AU - King, P. J.

    AU - Kumar, P.

    AU - Kumar, R.

    AU - Kuo, L.

    AU - Lange, J.

    AU - Lasky, P. D.

    AU - Lee, C. H.

    AU - Lee, H. K.

    AU - Lee, H. M.

    AU - Lee, K.

    AU - Leong, J. R.

    AU - Lewis, J. B.

    AU - Li, T. G.F.

    AU - Lynch, R.

    AU - Ma, Y.

    AU - Macleod, D. M.

    AU - Magee, R. M.

    AU - Man, N.

    AU - McCarthy, R.

    AU - McClelland, D. E.

    AU - McGuire, S. C.

    AU - McManus, D. J.

    AU - McRae, T.

    AU - Miao, H.

    AU - Middleton, H.

    AU - Miller, A.

    AU - Miller, A.

    AU - Miller, B. B.

    AU - Miller, J.

    AU - Mitra, S.

    AU - Moore, B. C.

    AU - Moore, C. J.

    AU - Muir, A. W.

    AU - Mukherjee, S.

    AU - Murphy, D. J.

    AU - Murray, P. G.

    AU - Nguyen, T. T.

    AU - Oh, S. H.

    AU - Oliver, M.

    AU - Ottaway, D. J.

    AU - Parker, W.

    AU - Powell, J.

    AU - Pratt, J.

    AU - Price, L. R.

    AU - Qin, J.

    AU - Read, J.

    AU - Reed, C. M.

    AU - Reid, S.

    AU - Robertson, N. A.

    AU - Romano, R.

    AU - Ryan, K.

    AU - Sanders, J. R.

    AU - Savage, R. L.

    AU - Schmidt, J.

    AU - Scott, J.

    AU - Scott, S. M.

    AU - Singh, A.

    AU - Singh, R.

    AU - Slagmolen, B. J.J.

    AU - Smith, J. R.

    AU - Smith, N. D.

    AU - Smith, R. J.E.

    AU - Srivastava, A. K.

    AU - Stephens, B. C.

    AU - Stone, R.

    AU - Strigin, S.

    AU - Sun, L.

    AU - Sutton, P. J.

    AU - Taylor, R.

    AU - Thomas, E. G.

    AU - Thomas, M.

    AU - Thomas, P.

    AU - Tiwari, S.

    AU - Tse, M.

    AU - Veitch, P. J.

    AU - Vine, D. J.

    AU - Vyatchanin, S. P.

    AU - Wade, L. E.

    AU - Walker, M.

    AU - Wallace, L.

    AU - Walsh, S.

    AU - Wang, G.

    AU - Wang, H.

    AU - Wang, M.

    AU - Wang, X.

    AU - Wang, Y.

    AU - Ward, R. L.

    AU - Warner, J.

    AU - Wei, L. W.

    AU - Weinstein, A. J.

    AU - Weiss, R.

    AU - Wen, L.

    AU - Whelan, J. T.

    AU - Williams, R. D.

    AU - Williamson, A. R.

    AU - Willis, J. L.

    AU - Wright, J. L.

    AU - Wu, G.

    AU - Yamamoto, H.

    AU - Zhang, M.

    AU - Zhang, Y.

    AU - Zhao, C.

    AU - Zhu, X. J.

    AU - LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration

    PY - 2017/1/1

    Y1 - 2017/1/1

    N2 - The first direct gravitational-wave detection was made by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory on September 14, 2015. The GW150914 signal was strong enough to be apparent, without using any waveform model, in the filtered detector strain data. Here, features of the signal visible in the data are analyzed using concepts from Newtonian physics and general relativity, accessible to anyone with a general physics background. The simple analysis presented here is consistent with the fully general-relativistic analyses published elsewhere, in showing that the signal was produced by the inspiral and subsequent merger of two black holes. The black holes were each of approximately 35 Mʘ, still orbited each other as close as ∼350 km apart and subsequently merged to form a single black hole. Similar reasoning, directly from the data, is used to roughly estimate how far these black holes were from the Earth, and the energy that they radiated in gravitational waves.

    AB - The first direct gravitational-wave detection was made by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory on September 14, 2015. The GW150914 signal was strong enough to be apparent, without using any waveform model, in the filtered detector strain data. Here, features of the signal visible in the data are analyzed using concepts from Newtonian physics and general relativity, accessible to anyone with a general physics background. The simple analysis presented here is consistent with the fully general-relativistic analyses published elsewhere, in showing that the signal was produced by the inspiral and subsequent merger of two black holes. The black holes were each of approximately 35 Mʘ, still orbited each other as close as ∼350 km apart and subsequently merged to form a single black hole. Similar reasoning, directly from the data, is used to roughly estimate how far these black holes were from the Earth, and the energy that they radiated in gravitational waves.

    KW - black holes

    KW - gravitational waves

    KW - GW150914

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84990230991&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1002/andp.201600209

    DO - 10.1002/andp.201600209

    M3 - Article

    VL - 529

    JO - Annalen der Physik

    JF - Annalen der Physik

    SN - 0003-3804

    IS - 1-2

    M1 - 1600209

    ER -

    Bell AS, Bergmann G, Berry CPL, Bersanetti D, Bertolini A, Betzwieser J et al. The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914. Annalen der Physik. 2017 Jan 1;529(1-2). 1600209. https://doi.org/10.1002/andp.201600209