The Adaptation of Pain Assessment Tools from High-Income to Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Psychometric Properties of a Set of Chronic Pain Questionnaires in Mongolian and New Zealand Patient Samples

Natalie L. Tuck, Bayalagmaa Khuvtsagaan, Usman Rashid, Tipu Aamir, Roger Goucke, Bazarragchaa Regjii, Ehkh-Amgalan Dorjbal, Ganbold Lundeg, Debbie J. Bean

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective. Chronic pain is a leading cause of disability in low- and middle-income countries; however, pain assessment tools have generally been developed and validated in high-income countries. This study examines the psychometric properties of a set of translated pain (and distress) questionnaires in Mongolia and documents the characteristics of people seeking treatment for chronic pain in Mongolia, compared with those in New Zealand, which is representative of high-income countries. Design. Cross-sectional, observational. Setting. Hospital-based pain treatment centers in New Zealand and Mongolia. Subjects. People seeking treatment for chronic pain in Mongolia (N = 142) and New Zealand (N = 159). Methods. The Brief Pain Inventory, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire were translated into Mongolian and administered to patients attending a hospital-based pain service. Questionnaires that were completed by patients in New Zealand were used for comparisons. Internal reliability, convergent validity, and factor structure were assessed in both groups. Results. Patients in Mongolia were older and reported lower pain intensity, interference, and distress and higher pain self-efficacy than those in New Zealand. The translated questionnaires had good internal consistencies, and the relationships between pain variables were similar across both groups. The factor structure for the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was consistent across both groups, but this was not the case for the Brief Pain Inventory or the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Conclusions. Findings indicate that some pain outcome measures may be appropriate for use in Mongolia and should be investigated in other low- and middle-income countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)948-960
Number of pages13
JournalPain Medicine
Volume22
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2021

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