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Testosterone acting via the androgen receptor, and via aromatisation to oestradiol, an activator of the oestrogen receptor, plays key roles in adipose tissue, bone and skeletal muscle biology. This is reflected in epidemiological studies associating obesity and disordered glucose metabolism with lower serum testosterone concentrations and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in men. Testosterone also modulates erythrocytosis and vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, with potential impacts on haematocrit and the cardiovascular system. The Testosterone for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes (T4DM) study enrolled men aged 50 years and over with a waist circumference of 95 cm or over, impaired glucose tolerance or newly diagnosed T2D, and a serum testosterone concentration (as measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay) <14.0 nmol/L. The study reported that a 2-year treatment with testosterone undecanoate 1000 mg, administered 3-monthly intramuscularly, on the background of a lifestyle program, reduced the likelihood of T2D diagnosis by 40% compared to placebo. This effect was accompanied by a decrease in fasting serum glucose and associated with favourable changes in body composition, hand grip strength, bone mineral density and skeletal microarchitecture but not in HbA1c, a red blood cell-dependent measure of glycaemic control. There was no signal for cardiovascular adverse events. With the objective of informing translational science and future directions, this article discusses mechanistic studies underpinning the rationale for T4DM and translational implications of the key outcomes relating to glycaemia, and body composition, together with effects on erythrocytosis, cardiovascular risk and slow recovery of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis.
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