Testing and extending Schwartz refined value theory using a best–worst scaling approach

Julie Lee, Joanne Sneddon, Timothy Daly, Shalon Schwartz, Geoffrey Soutar, Jordan Louviere

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)
352 Downloads (Pure)


The theory of human values discriminated 10 basic values arrayed in a quasicircular structure. Analyses with several instruments in numerous samples supported this structure. The refined theory of human values discriminates 19 values in the same circle. Its support depends on one instrument, the revised Portrait Values Questionnaire. We introduce a forced choice method, the Best–Worst Refined Values scale (BWVr), to assess the robustness of the refined theory to method of measurement and also assess the distinctiveness and validity of a new animal welfare value. Three studies (N = 784, 439, and 383) support the theory and the new value. Study 3 also demonstrates the convergent and discriminant validity of the 19 values by comparing the BWVr, the revised Portrait Values Questionnaire, and value-expressive behaviors and confirms the test–retest reliability of BWVr responses. These studies provide further information about the order of values in the value circle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-180
Number of pages15
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019

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