The feasibility of using terahertz pulsed imaging to map margins of exposed breast tumors was investigated by imaging 22 excised human breast tissue specimens with carcinoma excised from 22 women (mean age, 59 years; range, 39-80 years). The study was approved by the local ethics research committee, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. The size and shape of tumor regions on terahertz images were compared with those identified at histopathologic examination of the imaged section. Two image parameters were investigated: the minimum of the terahertz impulse function and the ratio of the minimum to the maximum of the terahertz impulse function. The correlation coefficient for the tumor area on images compared with that on a photomicrograph of all 22 samples was greater than 0.82 for both parameters. The shape of the tumor regions on terahertz images also correlated well with that on a photomicrograph ( median Spearman rank correlation coefficient, 0.69). Findings of this study demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulsed imaging to depict both invasive breast carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ under controlled conditions and encourage further studies to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique. (c) RSNA, 2006.