Temporal trends in chronic complications of diabetes by sex in community-based people with type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study

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Background: Whether recent reductions in cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in type 2 diabetes apply equally to both sexes is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize temporal changes in CVD events and related outcomes in community-based male and female Australian adults with type 2 diabetes or without known diabetes. Methods: Participants from the longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study Phases I (FDS1; n = 1291 recruited 1993–1996) and II (FDS2; n = 1509 recruited 2008–2011) and four age-, sex- and postcode-matched individuals without diabetes (FDS1 n = 5159; FDS2 n = 6036) were followed for first myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, lower extremity amputation, CVD death and all-cause mortality. Five-year incidence rates (IRs) for males versus females in FDS1 and FDS2 were calculated, and IR ratios (IRRs) derived. Results: The FD1 and FDS2 participants were of mean age 64.0 and 65.4 years, respectively, and 48.7% and 51.8% were males. For type 2 diabetes, IRRs for all endpoints were 11–62% lower in FDS2 than FDS1 for both sexes. For participants without diabetes, IRRs were 8–56% lower in FDS2 versus FDS1 apart from stroke in females (non-significantly 41% higher). IRRs for males versus females across FDS phases were not significantly different for participants with type 2 diabetes or those without diabetes (P-values for male * FDS2 interaction ≥ 0.0.083 adjusted for age). For risk factors in participants with type 2 diabetes, greater improvements between FDS1 and FDS2 in smoking rates in males were offset by a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure in females. Conclusions: The incidence of chronic complications in Australians with type 2 diabetes and without diabetes has fallen similarly in both sexes over recent decades, consistent with comparably improved overall CVD risk factor management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number253
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

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