The platycephalid genus Leviprora Whitley 1931 is taxonomically revised. Although the genus has been regarded as monotypic, including only Leviprora inops (Jenyns 1840) known from southern Australia, this study shows that Platycephalus semermis De Vis 1883, which was originally described from South Australia and has been considered to be possibly a junior synonym of L. inops, is the second nominal species of the genus. The two species are distinguished from each other by the number of pectoral-fin rays (18–19 in L. inops vs. 20–21 in L. semermis), the preocular spine (absent vs. present), fleshy sensory tubes on the cheek region (absent vs. developed), number of ducts of pored scales in the lateral line (one vs. two) and ratio of orbital diameter/interorbital width (2.3–4.7 vs. 1.5–2.8, both tending to decrease with growth). The present study presents a key to the species of the genus, detailed redescriptions and a comparison of the two species, and designates a neotype for L. semermis. This study also provides a revised diagnosis of the genus, owing to the new member of the genus and intraspecific variation in diagnostic characters.